Hinduism

by Pathmarajah Nagalingam

Chapter 13

 

 

 

 

I have wondered why is it that many find it difficult to understand saiva siddhanta when the SivaNyaanaBodham and the Meykandar Karutturai is most methodical, explicit and unambiguous. One reason is siddhanta seems formidable and intimidating and therefore many prefer to read commentaries of some of the Meykandar Shastras, or books written by secondary writers. Reading everything except the original writings! Here many get lost, stupified by the details, or cling on fixated to one principle neglecting the others.

Inorder to make siddhanta simple and easy to understand for beginners, I have compiled the SivaNyaanaBodham and the Meykandar Karutturai into a one essay style article, with the SJB sutras remaining as it is, untouched. I have removed some sentences from the Karutturai so as to keep the issues simple, and added some words and sentences mostly from the commentary by SivaNyaanaYogi (17th century) for clarification, and re-paragraphed, to make it easier to digest. I hope (wonder) this would be helpful as an introductory. Others, who are not beginners may read the unadulterated original here: http://www.shaivam.org/tamil/sansivae.pdf

See and enjoy the masterly unfolding of Saiva Siddhanta by Meykandar using pure logic and analogies for explanations.

Pathma

 

 

Saiva Siddhanta by Meykandar


CHAPTER 1

Because the world, consisting of things male, female and neuter, is subject to the three operations of production, maintenance, and dissolution, it is an entity produced by an Agent. Having dissolved, it comes into being again because of Impurity. The end is the beginning, say the wise.

1. The world perceived to exist undergoes production, maintenance, and dissolution, which is self evident. Having seen every species is produced and preserved and dissolved, will the wise not conclude that this is true likewise of the world as a whole? The world therefore is an entity which has been produced by someone. It is argued that without an efficient cause such evolution is impossible; pots cannot emerge from the clay without a potter.

2. The world exists because for that which does not exist there is no coming into being. The world has an efficient cause because for that which exists there is no coming into being without a producer. Nothing can come into being except out of the dissolution into which it dissolved, for it dissolves there. That which dissolved is produced again from that into which it dissolved. That which is produced must be that which dissolved.

3. If thou sayest that that which dissolved is in the Agent of preservation, then the whole world has not dissolved. The Agents of preservation and production dissolve there, in the Agent of dissolution. When the world is produced, it is produced from the God who was the cause of its dissolution. Therefore not the other deities, but the God who performs the operation of dissolution, is the Supreme God, the Primal Cause of the world. It is argued that as the world dissolves into the Agent of dissolution, it is from Him that it will evolve when it is evolved again; for a thing evolves out of that into which it dissolves.

4. Even as the seed resting in the moist ground sends up a shot, so Maya resting on the foot of the Lord receives power to evolve. Like the caterpillar which turns into a wasp, each soul is given its due form by Him. Because God, Himself unchanging like Time, produces the world without act of production, and similarly maintains and destroys it, He is transcendent, even as the mind, or as one who remembers, when awake, things dreamed. God is unchanging, He evolves the world by volition, not by action; and in the same manner maintains and dissolves it. Therefore God, untouched by Impurity, is not limited by any bond; as one on waking and remembering a dream is not involved in it.

5. It is the Agent of dissolution that is the Primal God: for the world of souls with sense- conditioned knowledge is not self-dependent, but depends on the Agent of dissolution, whose knowledge is not sense-conditioned. Because they dissolve in the One who is not one of them, just as they are evolved and maintained by the One who is not one of them, the Agent of dissolution, who is not one of them, is the Primal God. Souls, though like Him imperishable, are in many ways His servants even there in the state of Release.

 

CHAPTER 2

He, being one with souls and other than souls, abides in inseparable union with the Sakti, so that souls experience going and coming because of twofold works.

1. The Primal God is one with souls and other than souls: for the word advaita means ‘not two’; for if it be taken to mean ‘one’, there is that which thinks it is one. As the soul takes a body knit by sinews and sense-organs, and replies when the body’s name is called, even so is He joined with souls, and even so, because He is not soul, soul cannot be He. He is soul and is not soul. When the Rg-Veda says ‘one’, it means that reality is one, that the Lord is one. You who say ‘one’, understand that you are a soul bound by the fetter. The Veda means that just as there can be no letters if the vowel ‘a’ is not, so there is nothing if Brahma is not. Because, like tune and sound, like fruit and its essential sweetness, the foot of the omnipresent Lord is in advaita relation with souls, the precious Scriptures do not say ‘one’ but ‘not two’. It is maintained that the word advaita, ‘not two’, denies, not that two exist, but that the two are distinct. Like the sand which unites with the wax when it is melted, He being closely joined to the world of souls is in inseparable union with it. Because He enters my solitary soul, I can now say ‘I am the world’.

2. The oneness of God and soul is likened to the oneness of soul and body. The soul identifies itself with the living organism; but soul is soul and body is body. The soul can be one with the body, but the body cannot become soul. Similarly God is one with the soul; but God is God and soul is soul. God can be one with soul, but soul cannot become God. The relationship of God and soul is not any one of these three relations to the exclusion of the other two, but is all three, oneness, otherness, and implicit union.

3. Twofold works come to these souls by the Sakti of the Primal One; for His Sakti operates through twofold works, just as the protector of a city [acts] through a guard. When that which is causes rebirth, it is soul in the body that experiences the consequences of previous works. In experiencing the fruit of previous works there is action (bearing fruit in the future). Just as the ground bears fruit through the toil of the cultivator, so souls experience the consequences of their works through the operation of God. Works cannot of themselves attach themselves to souls. As the magnet draws the iron through someone placing it near, so the doers of works in that in which they work experience the consequences of their works through the Lord, who unerringly gives to each his due. If not, who else knows the works and attaches them to souls there?

4. These souls are continually dying and being born: for there is not coming into being except for that which undergoes both evolution and dissolution. When the body perishes, that which is appears, and with it the soul passes to heaven and forgets, as one forgets in a dream what was seen while awake. By reason of its works, the soul passes as subtle body into the womb, desire propelling. For the soul’s condition on departure from the material body it is not proper to use the analogy of air in a pot mingling with the atmosphere, instead of the analogies of the snake sloughing its skin, of the dream-state, and of the Yogi entering other men’s bodies; for that is an analogy of the way of the soul’s departure from the subtle body.

5. He is in inseparable union: for being neither one with nor other than His Sakti, He is omnipresent. Because He is omnipresent, He cannot be one; but if you say He is two, He cannot be omnipresent. Nothing can exist without Him. He is like sun and sunshine. They (the three fetters) are subordinate to Him; and we (souls) are His servants.

 

CHAPTER 3

By saying that it is not, by saying ‘my body’, by knowing of the five senses, by knowledge when they are suppressed, by the absence of feeling and activity in sleep, by knowing when caused to know, it is proved that there is a soul in the body which is an instrument produced by Maya.

1. Saying the soul is not implies that there is soul. This means that that which rejects everything, saying ‘This is not the soul, this is not the soul’, and then declares that there is no soul, is itself the soul. Something which is in union with all and rejects each, saying ‘This is not I’, exists in the form of the Five Letters. That art thou. Thou art not Maya; for Maya, on which thou depend, only assists thee in this fettered state to know, as spectacles assist the eye. Thou art not the Supreme Being. Thou art different from both.

2. Saying ‘my body’ implies that there is soul. This means that because there is something which says ‘my head’, ‘my leg’, just as we say ‘my house’, ‘my wife’, that something is the soul. Thou now sayest ‘my hand’, ‘my leg’, ‘my body’, and ‘my knowledge’ – though they are not thyself.

3. Because there is knowledge of the five senses, there is soul. Because each of the sense-organs perceives only one of the senses, sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell, there is something which by means of the five sense-organs perceives the five senses; that something is the soul. If there is something which is conscious of the Five Letters – each sense-organ in the body being able to perceive only one kind of sensation – that something is thyself. Because these sense-organs perceive only their respective sensations, understand that thou art not one of them.

4. Because there is knowledge during the suppression of the senses (in meditation or asleep), there is soul. Because there is something which in the waking state says ‘we dreamed’ or ‘we did not dream’, that something is the soul. When the five sense-organs which function in the body lie quiescent, (all external sense-activity) suppressed, thou passest duly from that body and assumest a different body, and then changest back again. Therefore thou art not that body.

5. Because there is no feeling or activity in sleep, there is soul. In other words, because when the sense-organs are suppressed there is in the body no pleasure or pain or activity, and when the sense-organs are not suppressed there is pleasure and pain and activity, (there is something which, suppressing and releasing the senses, causes the absence and presence of feeling). That something is the soul. Because prana-vayu is active even when, the sense-organs being suppressed, there is no sensation or activity in this body which is the means of sense-perception, there is a conscious soul which is not prana-vayu; for if the soul unsuppressed ( on awaking) enters the body, the body possessed feeling and activity. Understand that.

6. Because there is something which knows when made to know, there is soul. In other words, because there is something, a recipient of instruction, which when it is made to know that there is One who ever knows as He has known, there is soul. What is that which knows one thing, and proceeding to know something else no longer knows the former; and which subsiding (through the five states) ceases to know? It is not knowledge. If he who has seen the Truth considers (this question) - it is the soul, which knows according to that with which it identifies itself.

7. There is a knower who, having first become one with the body, sense-organs, etc., rejects each of them, saying ‘This is not I’. If this knower is also rejected as ‘not I’, there will be a knower which makes this rejection, and so on ad infinitum. Therefore understand that that knower in the form of the Suksma Pañcaksara, is you.

8. In the body composed of products of Maya, there is soul: for they have each a different name. On examination, they are evolutes of Maya, beginning with Kala¯ and ending with earth, and they are not lasting. If having first firmly grasped the nature of knowledge, thou inquirest what this collection of tattvas is, thou findest that it is a body which is like a lamp (to the soul). The soul is other than the body.

 

CHAPTER 4

The soul is not one of the inner faculties. But being without knowledge owing to Innate Impurity, it is associated with them like a king with his ministers, and has five states.

1. The soul is not one of the inner faculties, Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Citta, for they are light and not light. The knowledge which Manas (mind) and the other inner faculties have of sense-objects, and the knowledge which the soul has of what rises above Manas, arise like waves in the sea. Manas and the other inner faculties are different from the senses; and soul is different from Manas and the other inner faculties. The consciousness of Manas and the other inner faculties is of external objects presented by the five senses.

2. The soul as Citta is aware (of something); as Manas it receives the sense-impressions; as Ahamkara it questions (these data); and as Buddhi it decides what the object is. Therefore because the soul functions in each of these ways, it is other than the inner faculties, just as Time is other than its measuring agents (the sun and moon and stars).

3. The soul is without knowledge because of Innate Impurity: for Innate Impurity is the obscurer of knowledge and hides it. The soul knows nothing unless it has a body, as a means of enlightenment. The eternal union of the other Impurity with the soul is like the union of firewood with fire. Firewood is one with fire and conceals it within itself. Fire, though it is one with firewood, does not cease to exist.

4. The soul has five states, waking (jagrat), dreaming (svapna), dreamless sleep (susupti), ‘the fourth’ (turiya), and ‘beyond the fourth’ (turiyatita): for when hidden in Impurity it is formless. The soul which has reached the waking state in the forehead there experiences the five states. In that position it perceives by the several organs their respective objects, and then withdraws from them.

 

CHAPTER 5

Though body, mouth, eye, nose and ear perceive by the help of the soul, they do not know. Like them, souls, (though they know), by the grace of the Peerless One in their knowing (do not know). They are like the iron in the presence of the magnet.

1. The five senses perceive by the help of the soul: for unless the soul in union with them perceives, they cannot perceive. When the soul like a king is there ruling the five senses, the five senses do not know the soul. The soul does not perceive unless it perceives in the senses; and if the soul does not perceive, the eye cannot see and the ear cannot hear.

2. The soul knows by the help of the Primal One: for, like the sense-organs which perceive by the help of the soul, the soul does not know itself. Thou who hast forgotten the passage of the Scriptures where it is said that the world is active in the presence of S´iva who abides for ever, understand that the soul with S´iva as its enlightener has a conscious experience according to its works.

3. Just as the attraction of the iron is due simply to the presence of the magnet, so this experience of souls is due simply to the presence of the Primal One who dwells in them not by action but by volition. So the Primal One does not, through the soul’s experience, Himself experience change.

4. S´iva is not conscious of the non-real, because the non-real is nothing. Understand that as a star shines, lost in the sunlight and yet not the same as the sunlight, the soul perceives the five senses, seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, feeling, in Him who is True (neither one with Him nor other than He), but in union with Him.

5. The grace of Is´a is eternally with Him. It is S´akti. Without Him grace does not exist; without grace He does not exist. To the knowledge of those enlightened by grace, Hara is one with His S´akti, as the sun is one with the sunlight.


CHAPTER 6

If He is knowable, He is non-real; if He is unknowable, He is non-existent. Therefore the truly wise say that He is neither, but is spiritual reality, knowable and unknowable.

1. All things which are known by sense-conditioned knowledge are non-real: for they are light and not light. O thou which art ignorant of the non-real, hearken. If he who has seen the Truth considers (the question), all things which (sense-conditioned) knowledge knows are non- real. O thou who art not non-real, if thou seekest analogies for the nature of those things which are and are not, they are a writing on water, a dream, and a mirage.

2. That which is neither knowable nor unknowable but beyond speech and mind, and yet is comprehensible, is Absolute Spirit, the Real: for in the case of that which is light there is no need of enlightening, and in the case of that is not light there can be no enlightening. If it be said that He is neither real nor non-real, consider then what ground there is saying that He exists. If he who has seen the Truth examines (the question), both (that which can and that which cannot be known) are non-real. Therefore the Truth, the Real, which knowledge cannot know, is S´iva’s Foot. All the organs of knowledge are non-real; therefore none knows the One. And thou, the knower, cannot know (Him). If thou knewest Him, He would be (an object) other than thou. He who has seen the Truth knows (Him) by Himself. So he does not know the Peerless One as (an object) other than himself.

3. If thou sayest (He is comprehensible by) ‘meditation’, (its object) is non-real. If thou sayest, ‘meditation in the state beyond the Fourth’, it is meditation (on nothing). If thou sayest that it is neither this nor that, it is nothing. If thou sayest that it is to imagine meditation, it is meditation (on nothing). But that which is meditated upon by His grace is not nothing, but the Divine Being. He is not (an object) other than (the soul), so that the soul might know (Him). He being one with the soul’s knowledge cannot be known by the soul’s knowledge even yonder. So the soul’s knowledge cannot know and reveal Him who enlightens the soul, even as the eye cannot see the soul. He is not One, a That. Even yonder there is not only a ‘known’ but also a ‘knower’ who knows that there is something other (than himself). He is not an object to be known (by the soul) as ‘That’; He is one with the soul’s knowledge. So the soul which knows is (also) Absolute Spirit.


CHAPTER 7

In the presence of the real all things are non-existent; so the real does not know (them). The non-real is not; so it cannot know (the real). Therefore, that which knows both is the soul which is neither.


1. In the presence of the real the non-real does not appear: for in the presence of the true the false cannot appear. As Hara is not distinct from (the non-real), there is for Him nothing to know objectively. If He who is not distinct from (the non-real) knew the non-real, He would not know it as (an object) other (than Himself). In His presence there is no inglorious non- real, even as there is no darkness in the presence of the sun.

2. If God, who helps souls to know, were of a nature which can be known by sense- perception and inference, He would be non-real, something perishable like the world, which is known by these means. If He were of a nature which cannot be known by any means, He would be non-existent, which cannot be known. Therefore God is Absolute Spiritual Reality, neither known nor unknown in these ways, but unknowable in one way (viz. by sense-conditioned knowledge), and knowable in another (viz. by Divine knowledge).

3. The non-real is devoid of knowledge: for on examination it is found devoid. When an ignorant man approaching a mirage thinking it to be water, he finds it non-real when he reaches it. Similarly in the absence of those who have obtained (enlightenment) and know the non-real, it (viz. the appearance of knowledge in the non-real) will seem not to be non-real. Understand, to those who have examined the non-real, it is without knowledge.

4. That which knows both is the soul which is neither. (In other words) that which knows both, that which knows when helped to know, that which is in union with both, is the soul. The soul, which studies abstruse scripture, knows both the formless and the formed; so it is neither. Its nature is that it does not appear as either of them, nor, through not appearing as either, is it non-existent. It is like the scent in relation to the flower. Knowing nothing, and then by means of a medicine (dispelling ignorance) gaining knowledge, thou whose knowledge thus changes art not real. (You who change thus from ignorance to knowledge have not the power to know.) Thou can experience the fruit of works; the non-real unlike thee cannot. Therefore neither art thou non-real. Ignorance, being non-real, cannot appear in the presence of True Knowledge. It attached itself to souls, there being souls fit for it, at the time when True Knowledge came into being. Understand that it is like salt in the cold ocean-water.

 

CHAPTER 8

When because of the soul’s meritorious practices the Primal One enlightens the soul as a guru also, saying, ‘Brought up among savages, the five senses, thou hast lost consciousness (of thy true estate), the soul leaves them and, being not other (than Hara), reaches Hara’s feet.

1. These souls obtain knowledge by austerities previously performed: for when the soul in previous births has performed Carya, Kriya, and Yoga, these meritorious practices reveal the knowledge which is the right path, but do not themselves give deliverance. Those who have performed these practices enter the respective heaven. In order that they may sever the attachment of desire, they are born again in high station for the performance of such works, and attain knowledge. The joy which comes from prescribed acts is like the joy of one who being hungry eats and again hungers.

2. The Primal One Himself teaches these souls as a guru: for in the form of Consciousness He is in union (with him). To the Vijñanakalas He Himself appears, as True Knowledge, being Himself within them, the light (of all their seeing). To the Pralayakalas He Himself standing before them as as guru imparts True Knowledge, in His own form as S´iva, four-armed, three-eyed, black-throated, and performing His three functions. To ignorant Sakalas, He imparts it concealing Himself as a (human) guru. Understand.

3. Souls do not know unless they are helped to know in the way (appropriate to their degree). Understand that all souls know when God helps them to know, not all in the same way, but according to their condition. For those which need the instruction of the Lord of the world, who Himself needs nothing, their need’s supply appears directly or indirectly. For those which do not require the teaching that supplies such need, understand that there is knowledge which brings Deliverance (through God), within them. O scholar, blest with knowledge, a woman’s milk and tears, the visible forms that reveal her invisible love, are not manifest before she sees her babe; then are they seen. Similarly He is without visible form in souls. Who could know Him who like the shadow of water is without visible form, if He did not reveal Himself, taking visible form?

4. These souls, confused by the five senses, do not know themselves: for the five senses reveal what they reveal like the colors in a crystal. Like the crystal which displays many colors, the soul thinks its nature is displayed in the sense-organs. Then perceiving that the false sense-organs, like the (crystal’s) many colors, are different from it, it sees the True and rejects the false as false; and being different from the non-real, it becomes dependent upon the True.

5. When this soul sees itself different from the sense-organs, then it attains the blessed feet of the Primal One: for if the swing-rope breaks, mother earth is our support. The soul, like a great river dammed, escaping from the restriction of sense-knowledge attains the everlasting feet of Hara and never returns, just as the river bursting the dam flows into the sea and merges itself therein.

6. If all things are He, there is none to reach His feet. If He is other than any, He is not Lord. When sight is regained by the blind, see the superiority of the eye. O thou who hast learnt the great truth that thou art not like the sense-organs, the Sakala soul which has put away the five senses and united with S´iva will not leave Him by again uniting with the sense-organs. If Impurity and Karma, dispersed like water-weed, return again, the soul, meditating on Him who never forsakes it, can make them forsake it.

CHAPTER 9

Let the soul by spiritual vision discover the Lord in its own consciousness - the Lord who cannot be known by imperfect knowledge and sense-perception. Which the soul abandons the world of sense as a quickly passing mirage, the Lord becomes cool shade (for it). It will ponder the Five Letters in the manner prescribed.

1. See the Primal One by spiritual illumination: for, though beyond speech and mind, He is comprehensible. When the soul, inquiring whether it is vein or nerve or bone or fat or phlegm, fails to discover what it is, it learns (that there is another way to know itself). Those who do not know themselves, first knowing Hara, by His grace – by what other means can they know themselves at this time (of Release)? The eye which is enabled to see cannot see itself, or the soul which enables it to see. The soul which is enabled to see cannot see itself (or God). God is in the soul hidden like a thief. See Him there.

2. When the various colors which are non-real are seen to be non-real, what thus arises is rightly understood to be Knowledge itself. When the non-real is rejected, will not the Primal One, the Absolute, who is without gunas, without impurity, who is eternal bliss, supreme, come and appear as boundless wonder and never-failing knowledge?

3. When that which is known objectively has been recognized as non-real, understand that that which then is rightly known is the real. Thou who hast been knowing (in union with the non-real) art not the real. If thou unitest with the Divine Essence, by that union the non-real will be completely removed from thee. When the soul sees that what it sees is not (the real) and abandons it as non-real, and searches and sees the Lord in itself, then it rids itself of the defect (impurities) with which it has been associated from of old.

4. Now repeat the Five Letters after the manner prescribed. For, although for these souls Knowledge has shone forth, they tend to turn their former Ignorance, like a caterpillar which has fed on neem (returns to bitter neem even after eating sugarcane, due to a force of habit). If the soul knows by the Five Letters that it belongs to Hara; if in the heart it worships Him by them; if in the navel it offers oblation by them; if between the eyebrows it meditates; then in that meditation god will appear and the soul will become His servant. If the soul sees Siva in its own consciousness, He will appear as the enlightener, just as fire appears when sticks are rubbed together. The soul, like iron in the fire (which loses it's hardness and becomes like fire), becomes His servant. Recite the Five Letters.

5. Understand by recitation of the Sri Pancaksara that the soul belongs to Hara. In the centre of the brow, the seat of the Bindu, meditate ‘He is I’, giving to the three syllables S´i, va, and ya the meanings of Tat, tvam, and asi respectively. If you do so, God will be manifest to you in that meditation; and you, the meditator, will become His servant by meditating on yourself and God as the dependent and the self-dependent. By recitation of the S´ri Pañcakshara the soul rejects the world known by the soul’s sense-conditioned knowledge and destroys its attachment to it.

 

CHAPTER 10

When the soul, having become one (with the Lord), even as the Lord is one with the soul, abides in the Lord’s service, powerful Karma and Mala and Maya pass away.

1. As (in the fettered state) Parames´vara is one with these souls, in like manner (in the freed state) they must be one with Him: for it is when the soul is one with Him that it puts away the self-conceit which speaks of ‘I’ and ‘mine’, and reaches the Sacred Feet. To those who think in terms of ‘I’ and ‘he’, there is the conscious soul; and so the Lord does not appear as Himself but as the soul. Those who say not ‘I’ but ‘He’, the Lord brings to His Feet, and He appears as Himself to them.

2. It is necessary to abide unfailingly in His service; for if the soul does nothing except by His grace, Ignorance and Karma cannot enter. If the soul realizes that the sense-organs are not it, nor in its control, and that the objects of sense-perception are not it, and that it is dependent upon Hara, then for those in such service of the Lord, in whatever body they may be, works do not exist, and previous works also (cease) in the presence of the Giver. It is the duty of a master to protect those who depend on him. So though the Lord protects those who depend on Him, there is no partiality in Him. He makes His servants who depend on Him one with Himself; and to others He gives their works, just as He gives the previous works that belong to them.

3. Like the odor of asafoetida which lingers in a vessel, previous works and Maya may be stirred up for the spiritually enlightened. But the future consequences of works and Maya do not continue, for, being one with real, the soul knows its support. Like those great ascetics whom fire cannot burn, like the horseman who (unshaken) rides a swift horse, the spiritually enlightened, who study (to avoid entanglement with the senses) and know the Feet of Hara, though they perceive by the senses, will not on that account abandon what they have won. If the spiritually enlightened, who are real non-real, see by the grace of the Real, there is no attachment to Pas´a. So those who are in union with the Real are not involved in the non-real, which cannot function there, even as darkness (cannot remain) in the presence of fiercely blazing light.

 

CHAPTER 11

Like the soul which makes the seeing eye to see - in order that the soul may see, the Lord sees, and makes the soul to see. Therefore in unforgetting love the soul reaches the feet of Hara.

1. He also knows that which is known by souls: for these souls without Him of themselves know nothing. Because the soul perceives the objects of the five senses standing in union with the respective sense-organ, it does not perceive all five at once, but perceives them one by one. But He who is One perceives all things simultaneously. When the soul, becoming one with God, experiences His grace, God is Bliss and Perfect Loveliness (to the soul), and is also one with it. Therefore will He not know through the soul that which the knower knows?

2. The eye cannot see an object unless an illuminating light uniting with the light of the eye falls also upon the object. Similarly souls, whose nature it is to know when helped to know, cannot know unless God’s knowledge unites with theirs, and, passing with it to the object, unites with it also. Alone they cannot perceive or know anything. Therefore God must be in union with the soul and know, so that the soul may perceive and know.

3. When the soul unforgetting praises God with devotion, it reaches His Sacred Feet: For God in inseparable union with souls causes the fruit of what they do, to form. Though the sun be there, it is dark except for those with sight. Even so God is invisible to those bound by Pas´a. From those who know Him with love, God removes Pas´a by His grace. They are like the (mature) lotus which the sun causes to open. As the moon dispels lingering darkness, Hara, who in His love dwells (with souls), dispels Impurity. Like a magnet which attracts and controls iron, He is unwearied and unchanged. Like the magnet, He does it simply by His presence, without effort.

4. If it be said that having perished the soul becomes one with the Lord-because it has perished it cannot become one with Him. If it be said that without perishing it becomes one with Him - it cannot become one with Him. Like salt uniting with water, the soul, having destroyed its Impurity, unites with the feet of the Lord and becomes His servant. There is then no attraction (of the soul to Impurity). Just as the radiance of the sun rising in cloud is at first obscured, and when the clouds pass away shines everywhere, so the radiant knowledge of the soul hidden in Impurity first has experience of the world, and then having dispelled Impurity it attains the grace (of God).

 

CHAPTER 12

When, having washed away the Impurity which prevents it reaching the sustaining Feet that are like the red lotus-flower, and having joined the company of those who love the Lord, the soul is rid of delusion, it worships as Hara Himself the habit of those who abound in devotion, and His shrines.

1. Put away the Impurities, Anava, Maya, and Karrma: for they do not give Knowledge but Ignorance. This Karma, which is associated with good and evil deeds, and Maya, which is seen (in the Tattvas) from earth to (As´uddha) Maya, and Anava which produces Ignorance - these three Impurities are not proper for the spiritually enlightened. Leave them.

2. Associate with S´iva’s devotees: for those who are not, cause Ignorance. When the spiritually enlightened sever their association with the unworthy, who make them forget their true nature and fall into the Impurities, in the company of devotees they become infatuated (with love of God) and know with Divine Knowledge. Then works cannot touch them.

3. Worship the sacred habit of S´iva’s devotees, and the shrines of S´iva, regarding them as the Supreme Lord, for in those places He is visible, in other places He is not. In order that men may know Him the Lord gives His devotees His form, and they know Him and are in Him. So He is visible in His devotees who know Him, as ghee is visible in curds, but in those who are involved in Pasa He is not visible. The Lord is one with the visible form, and not one with it, just as the spark of fire is one with and different from the wood. (To those who do not know it as Him) He is there by means of a mantra known to them; but to ascetics who know it as Him, will He not appear as it?

4. Worship in these places: for as the soul, which is one with nerves, sinews, etc., is also other than they, so also that Supreme Soul. For the enlightened He is not other than the world, He is not one with the world. He is not both other than and one with the world. But because the relation is non-duality, which includes all these three, all things are His form. Nevertheless, thou who knowest the truth of non-duality, worship in love.

5. The non-real arises because of works. Therefore unless works are removed, Knowledge cannot arise. When in order to remove works (the freed souls) seek and worship (those who have) Knowledge, Knowledge arises. Therefore worship (them) in love.

6. To forget Him who helped him to know himself and made him like Himself is not a sin which can be removed. Though He makes him like Himself, the soul which was a servant remains a servant. Therefore the worship of God is strength (to the soul).

7. O thou who hast learnt the Siddhanta that thou art S´iva, souls with one and with two Impurities become S´iva, where there is no rebirth, (the former) by the appearance of God in their consciousness, (the latter) by sight and speech (of Siva). Those with three Impurities attain it through this treatise, taught by a human guru.

 

 

 

 

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