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#770 - September 15, 2008 05:37 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Contents - this page

1. The Worship of Tillai is the WAY to See BEING - Appar

2. The Atomic Soul & its Release from its Fetters - Svetasvatara Upanishad

3. The Catholic View of Icon Worship

4. The Poisonous Heart and Premature Death - Appar

5. He Does Not Know His Own Greatness - Ramcharitmanasa

6. Agamism: The Inda-ism of the Sumerians and Hinduism of Indians - Tirumular

7. Origins of Agamism

8. The Elements are His Weapons - Sambandhar

9. Hermeneutics and the Temple as Text - 1

10. Hermeneutics and the Temple as Text -2

11. Truth Scriptures and Deathlessness

12. Trigunas and Tattvas

13. Monism & Dualism in the Tirumantiram

14. Monism & Dualism - Tayumanavar

15. Mudras

16. Defining Metaphysical Philosophies

17. Physics, Metaphysics & Psychology

18. Types of Mukti

19. Temple and Existential Psychiatry - Freud and Appar

20. The Existentialism of Appar

21. The Philosophy of Temple City - Appar

22. The Mantra Recital and Temple Worship - Appar

23. Evolution of Hindu Gods and Thoughts - a view

24. Advaita, Soul and Creation in Siddhanta

25. The Fundamental Ontology of Saiva Siddhanta (45 sub-articles)

26. Religion and Hermeneutic Science-1

27. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-2

28. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-3

29. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-4

30. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-5

31. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-6

32. Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-7

33. Saiva Siddhanta by Meykandar - SivaJnanaBotham and Karutturai Condensed

34. Appar on Human Autonomy

35. Appar on Human Autonomy-4

36. Appar on Human Autonomy-5

37. Transductive Perceptions and Transcending Religions and Scriptures

38. The Soul and Sexuality

39. Appar on Human Autonomy - 6

40. A Day in the Life of a Murti Maker







The Temple Hymns of Appar 1-10

The Worship of Tillai is the WAY to See BEING

For anyone who seeks to understand BEING through the explorations of the unconscious and scriptural exegetics and such attempts where the ego-self is active, BEING shows Himself as the huge column of Fire, one form of SivaliGkam where neither the bottom nor the top are accessible. This is the substance of the famous puraNa where both VishNu who digs deep down assuming the shape of boar and Brahma assuming the shape of the White Swan soars into the sky and reach the top. Both fail and realize that BEING cannot be comprehended as to what He really is, His Coruubam unless He wills to grace the seeking soul. BEING shows Himself as the absolutely beyond only to DEFEAT the ego-self so that it becomes egoless and Pure.

Now this should not be taken as a sectarian attack on Sri VaishNavism and so forth. The Saivism of Appar is metatheistic where the one and same BEING is taken to assume different iconic forms and all as part of the DANCE or Play of BEING and all only to make all souls become PURE and CLEAN and with that enjoy the Njaanam.

BEING becomes VishNu and promotes the exploration of the unconscious depths and which is the function of the BOAR icon BEING assumes. This symbolism goes deep into the past where the metaphysical moves of the soul were represented in terms of animal icons. The BOAR digs the hard earth and which is similar to the human attempt to explore the UNCONSCIOUS through dreams and such other transductive perceptions. What emerges is that BEING is so vast that He EXCEEDS the unconscious and hence beyond even such attempts of man. Similarly the flight with White Swan into the upper most layers of the sky -the understanding that remains REVEALED in the scriptures. Man in his ego, thinks BEING can be fully comprehended with scriptural exegetics and related disciplines only to realize that this also is IMPOSSIBLE - BEING remains always a SURPLUS, impossible to pin down into words and meanings.

But why then such activities and also installed by BEING?

These are a must for any soul only to realize that BEING remains always ABOVE and BEYOND all such attempts and that he must dissolve his ego and become simply egoless in order to understand BEING.

BEING remains in His most authentic form the Dancer in the heart of all. Only when a person cultivates the FEELINGS and EMOTIONS and not simply waste time in scriptural exegetics, explorations of the unconscious and so forth, become egoless and with that Pure and Clean, BEING as the tireless DANCER deep within will disclose Himself as thus only for such souls. It is here the worship at the temple in Tillai, that temple that holds as its deepest secret a Pure Emptiness becomes the WAY for enjoying this.

The vision of NOTHINGNESS is also a presentation of BEING and which wipes out every streak of ego-self . The EGO becomes NOTHING and at which point the self becomes the Sat-Self and which makes it fit to enjoy the authentic form of BEING and as disclosed by BEING directly.

naadi naaraNan naanmukan enRivar

teediyum tirintuG kaaNa vallaroo

maada maaLikai suuz Tillai ampalattu

aadi paatamen nenjuL irukkavee

BEING presents Himself also as VishNu and Brahma and in those iconic forms promotes the explorations of the realms of the unconscious and those which remain revealed in the scriptures. But one who moves along these ways seeking and searching for the authentic form of BEING, can never succeed for BEING is always a SURPLUS for such individuals. The right WAY is to worship the Vast Expanse of Nothingness in the Tillai located in Citambaram a city full of multi-storied mansions. For BEING remains the DANCER deep within the heart and who becomes visible once self become egoless.

It appears to me that the Tamil VaishNavism as available in the Divvya Prabvantam , does not accommodate itself to presentation of BEING as the Dancer, the Siva Nadarajah. This is quite strange for it was the Azwars like Poykai Azwar Namazvar and so forth who articulated the basic metaphysical insights that were further developed by the Saivites. We must recall here that it was these Azwars who first recognized the presence of Malam, and which was also available in the Vedas as aNavam. Perhaps for Vaishnavaites the metaphysical insight as symbolized as Pure Nothingness was not palatable as they viewed BEING as full of the most auspicious guNas, and which they learned from Namazvars uyarvara uyar nalam udaiyavan. The vision of the Sunyam or Sunyata and which discloses the Absolute (Meykandar : cattu etir suunyam) was perhaps not to their taste.


[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited March 02, 2010).]

[This message has been edited by webmaster (edited March 21, 2010).]

#771 - October 15, 2008 10:22 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Atomic Soul & its Release from its Fetters

Know the embodied soul to be a part of the hundredth part of the point of a hair divided a hundred times; and yet it is infinite.

It is not female, it is not male, nor is it neuter. Whatever body it takes, with that it becomes united.

By means of desires, contact, attachment and delusion, the embodied soul assumes, successively, diverse forms in various places, according to its deeds, just as the body grows when food and drink are poured into it.

The embodied soul, by means of good and evil deeds committed by itself, assumes many forms, co**** and fine.

By virtue of its actions and also of such characteristics of the mind as knowledge and desire, it assumes another body for the enjoyment of suitable objects.

He who knows the Lord, who is without beginning or end, who stands in the midst of the chaos of the world, who is the Creator of all things and is endowed with many forms - he who knows the radiant Deity, the sole Pervader of the universe, is released from all his fetters.

Yajur Veda, Svetasvatara Upanishad, Part I, Chapter V. 9-13

#772 - October 15, 2008 10:26 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Catholic View of Icon Worship

Religious worship is not directed to images in themselves, considered as mere things, but under their distinctive aspect as images leading us on to God. The movement toward the image does not terminate in it as image, but tends toward that whose image it is.

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274), Catholic philosopher, theologian

[b]Webmaster's note/] apart from the Hindus, the catholics are the biggest icon worshipers, as well as the muslims who direct their worship towards the Black Stone Kaaba in Mecca.

#773 - October 16, 2008 11:28 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Appar Meditating on Death 8

The Poisonous Heart and Premature Death

It is the common experience of many (including myself) that those whose heart is dirty and spill out words like that of a venomous snake, designed to hurt and if possible kill, meet with their premature and quite often very painful death. When they spill out venomous words, they in fact inadvertently kill themselves, poison themselves in fact.

Appar addresses this empirical fact and suggests a solution where we find the ardent tapas of great Yogies have a meaning. The word 'vadamuukka maamunivar' does not lend itself for easy translation for the meaning is quite obscure. However the context suggests that it describes the various bodily tortures like fasting drying up to the point of becoming almost dead and so forth. It appears that those who are indeed poisonous in their heart spitting out venomous words at others should indulge in such ardent tapas that also involve body tortures by way of torturing the soul.

But what really happens when one indulges in such practices of self-torture?

Siva as the One who wields the AXE emerges in the soul and who would chop off the elements there that make the soul poisonous. Such a BEING also shows Himself as the rider of the Pure White BULL to show that His gruesome activity of chopping off some elements in the soul is designed only to PURIFY it not gently but violently.

Now Appar also notes that such gruesome acts of self-destruction are beyond VishNu who concentrates on conserving and preserving and in that also indulges in blessing the souls with good and deep sleep that helps them to recover good health. Such painful activities are also beyond Brahma, who sitting on a white Lotus concentrates on the creative and productive activities in the world.

Self purification and which enables overcoming the fetters that hasten death, is an immensely violent and destructive process and the various tapas of yogis are designed to make present in the soul Siva the wielder of the Axe so that He can chop off these evil things.

Vidmuukkap paambeepool cinti nenjcee

veLLeeRRaan tan tamaraik kaNdpootu

vadamuukka maamunivar poolac cenRu

maatavvattaar nanattuLLaar mazuvaaL celvar

padamuukkup paampaNaiyin paLLiyaanum

paGkayattu meelavanum paravik kaaNaak

kudamuukkee kudamuukkee enbiiraakil

koduvinaikaL tiirntaanaik kuRukalaamee

O my heart that spits out words that are poisonous like a poisonous snake spitting out poison, listen! When you see the Lord of the White Bull along with His retinue of Siva GaNas, you must submit yourself to Him like all the great yogis who with great tapas become pure and because of which Siva holding the axe resides in their heart ready to chop off anything evil that may enter. This Siva is beyond the reaches of the praises of the VishNu who sleeps over the bed of the huge Aticedan and Brahma who sits over the White Lotus, resides in the temple of Kudamuukku. If only you would recite this name like a mantra, you can become pure of the various fetters and close in on Siva of this greatness.


#774 - January 05, 2009 11:27 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
He Does Not Know His Own Greatness

Here is an an experience during meditation.

"The Self-God, the Primal Soul or Siva, 'psychically told' that He
Himself does not know the extent and vastness of His own transcendent
perfection as Parasivam. In other words although He is Parabrahman, He
does not know the extent, greatness and the fullness of His own nature
and power. Hence no one can know His greatness."

The above is what He said.

In our puranas there is a episode where Lord Muruga imparts to Siva on
His (Siva's) own Greatness. Hence another name of Muruga is Gurunatha
- the guru of the God.

In Tulsidas own words in the Ramcharitmanasa:

The Rudrashtakam hymn comes to us from a famous devotional text called
the Ramacharitamanasa, in the Avadhi language rendering of the
Ramayana epic composed by Tulsidas (16th century CE). It may come as a
bit of a surprise that a hymn glorifying Shiva in the highest of
terms, that he is Brahman, should be found in a Vaishnava devotional
text. But the fact of the matter is that Tulsidas repeatedly glorifies
Shiva throughout his work, even though in most cases he does so using
Vaishnava framework. The reason behind Tulsidas' repeated eulogy to
Shiva is likely due to the fact that he composed his work in Kashi
(Varanasi), Shiva's holy city. The central temple in Varanasi is the
Jyotirlingam Shrine of Vishvanath, and Tulsidas felt that he was able
to compose his work only due to Lord Vishvanath's grace.

Another explanation is that Tulsidas felt that he had ignored Shiva in
his work and hence overcome and trembling he composed this hymn in the
highest terms midway through his work and repeatedly thereafter, each
time eulogising, bowing and bowing and pacifying the great god Sambhu.
He felt that his book would be incomplete and incorrect without a
proper mention of Shiva.

Regardless of Tulsidas' intentions, the Rudrashtakam is a well known
and oft recited moving melodious hymn to Shiva owing to the immense
popularity of the Ramacharitamanasa.


#775 - January 12, 2009 11:35 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Agamism: The Inda-ism of the Sumerians and Hinduism of Indians

Fortunately for us the Tamil scriptures seem to have retained this ORIGINAL CONCERN of religious life and most of the hymns in Tamil keep on articulating this. The following from Tirumantiram of Tirumular (~6th cent A.D.) is just one of them which I reproduce here along with my commentary.

Upatesam 12

veLiyil veLipooy viraviya vaaRum
aLiyil aLippooy adangkiya vaaRum
oLiyil oLipooy odungkiya vaaRum
teLiyum avaree civa cittar taamee

The genuinely illuminated Siddhas are those who understand
Beyond any shadow of doubt that Being-with-BEING is like
Pure space spreading out within Absolute Space
True love getting subdued by Divine Love and
Clear Light being subdued by the transcendental Light Supreme

Metaphysical excursions which is the genuine religious life is a journey, a pilgrimage and because of which pilgrimages to sacred places have become instituted as part of the ritual obligations in all religions. It is a TRAVEL with a destination and it is in the conception and understanding of this, the end point of the travel that there are many differences over which, at least in India, there has been vigorous disputes for millenniums. And in this verse emerges a concept of it called Sudda Advaita of Saiva Siddhanta to distinguish it from various kinds of advaitas and which is distinctly HERMENEUTICAL. The end state is an UNDERSTANDING as all metaphysical journeys are hermeneutical i.e. concerned with de-finitisation of the naturally finite human understanding. And the anma does not get evaporated and become a non-entity as it is claimed in the well known Advaita Vedanta of Sankara for there is the EXPERIENCING of bliss and unless there is this anma even at this stage as the experiencer, there can be NO articulation of this experience at all.

Then the question arises: How are we to understand this end state? Tirumular addresses this question in this verse in touching metaphors and analogies to explain the matter, mindful of the hermeneutical foundations within which he moves. Only bounded space can merge and be one with the boundless when the bounding factors are removed. Here the space of the pot becoming the vast open space on being broken is an apt example. But the space of the pot stands for CONSCIOUSNESS of the limited understanding of man which become the SAME as the Supreme Consciousness of ABSOLUTE BEING when the defiling and delimiting factors are removed. There is total merger, the UNDERSTANDING is no more human, that of an anma, but that of BEING.

And now we should note that understanding has TWO aspects to it-- that of SCOPE and that of CONTENT. The above analogy applies to the SCOPE and the analogy of the little light being OUT SHINED by the larger light applies to the content. The UNDERSTANDING of BEING is supremely ILLUMINANT and therefore suffers no development or change. The human consciousness, the Light with which it sees become subdued in the face of the BRILLIANCE of BEING just as the light of stars gets subdued by the brilliance of the sun. The little light is there but it fails to OUTSHINE the larger light; for there is complete WITHDRAWAL.

Such is also the case with DIVINE LOVE where BEING is understood as LOVE itself, "anbee sivam" also articulated by Tirumular elsewhere. Just as goodness can be conquered only by a higher goodness so is with love, the little love can be conquered only by a larger and purer love by putting the former to shame. Just is the case even with the human love no matter how pure it is - it gets conquered by Divine LOVE, the LOVE that BEING HIMSELF IS as His essence. The human love even of the most saintly person is reduced to NOTHING in comparison to the Divine Love of BEING.

Thus the END STATE of the metaphysical journey is that of DEFEAT, the human being defeated by the Divine, and hence the human becoming totally egoless but by that divine in essence.

The Wounding of the Ego

When the EGO stands strong there is a refusal to LEARN and a RESISTANCE to change and instead DEFEND whatever identity one has acquired by virtue of birth or by a choice of one's own which comes with the logic: it is MINE and therefore I OUGHT to DEFEND it, PROTECT it and PROMOTE it at whatever cost. There ceases to be dialogic interaction but only confrontational encounters where one seeks to DEFEAT the opponent and make him SUBMIT. This confrontational attitude shows itself in the intellectual as well as social level with their attendant "hot wars".
What is also LOST is the REAL concern of Religion, that after all it is simply something that promotes metaphysical journey that WOUNDS the EGO and makes the person PURE by making him EGOLESS but NOT selfless.

#776 - February 03, 2009 03:01 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Origins of Agamism

Agamism is inspired by the Kes Temple Hymns by EnHudu Anna, certainly the most profound philosopher to come from the Third Millennium World who with her sharp and penetrating intellect has won a permanent place in the History of Human Thoughts. She appears to be the forerunner to the brilliant women saints of India such as Karaikaal Peyar and Sri Andal and many others who revolutionized Indian thinking with their Bakthi metaphysics. They introduced LOVE as an important ingredient of religious life when philosophical thinking degenerated into loveless intellectual acrobatics where spirituality was killed by the introduction of machine-like logical thinking and also loveless asceticism where the most notable and heroic achievement was considered woman hating and being successful in it.

The Kes Temple Hymn

What impressed me about the Seventh Hymn was the striking similarity in the Temple rituals of those times with those that are currently prevalent. There is recitation of verses or mantras, nu-es, and circumbulating the shrines, giri-la ( kiri-valam). There were perhaps yoga practitioners the "en-kum-ene" with special rooms, ara (Ta. aRai) allocated for them in the temple itself. There was fanning of the deities, sprinkling of pure waters, the suklaam parataram, blowing the horns, playing the harp, the tigi and so forth and of singing various songs consistent with the appropriate rhythms and cadence, very closely calculated if we are to believe the description given of these by Sulgi in his Hymn B, the Mutariibiyam.
There were songs sung for the welfare of the Temple and the nation, the "e-sub" and "uru-sub-a". And interestingly enough the whole society was there in the temple, including the lugal-bur-ra, the Leader of the forts, perhaps the King as also many of the priests. There were priest trainees, the "pa-ses-ene" who participated actively in the rituals, in drum beating, chorus singing and so forth.

And the nation prayed for abundant harvest and for which purpose they celebrated festivals as for the gods, very much like Indra Viza of Silappatikaaram and MaNimekalai times. For only when the gods are pleased there will be their blessings in the form of good harvest etc. and the festivals are meant to make the gods be present among them.

While some things have changed the fundamentals remain the same. There are no more human or animal sacrifices (except as underground activities) and they have been replaced with flower worship and less gruesome physical punishments. Perhaps all these due to the tremendous humanizing influence of early Jainism and Buddhism.

Why the Rituals are Important

In my interest in Metaphysics and Depth Psychology I somehow underestimated the enormous importance of the rituals and the cariyai types of religious practices as opposed to Yoga and Njana, the philosophical. Now I am beginning to understand why the Agamic tradition never underestimated the importance of the ritual side of religious life even when one become philosophic and why they classified all these into Cariyai Kiriyai Yokam and Njanam with a hierarchical relationship between them. The metaphysical inquiries are part of the Njanam level of being but something that cannot arise without the Yoga, which in turn cannot arise without the Kiriyai and which in term cannot arise if not for the cariyai type of concrete metaphysical praxis. Thus all these are linked up in a hierarchical order where the practice and mastery of the lower leads to the higher and the highest being the philosophical discourses, the Njana Pathai, the kinds of metaphysical dialogues where doubts and confusions are removed and truth is enjoyed with apodictic certainty.

This we see in the Kes Temple Hymns most clearly and also something that has survived despite the huge social upheavals, catastrophes natural and otherwise, migrations and mixing with other races, many cultural invasions, political subjugation and what not.

Agamism seems to have a vitality to withstand all kinds of challenges and SURVIVE despite all these. And in order to understand Agamism, we have to understand also its tenacity.


#777 - February 25, 2009 02:09 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Elements are His Weapons

Agamism 18: Love Violence and Nonviolence-1

As an aftermath of the inhuman terrorist attacks and noting the presence of terrorism as a fabric of human culture at the moment there is much talk about nonviolence and its importance. While undoubtedly in recent history it was Gandhi who articulated it and applied it in politics, it must be noted that for those who are familiar with the bakthi revolt more than seventeen centuries ago, the nonviolence is NOT new and that it was not only philosophically well articulated but also applied for political and social reforms at least by THREE notable sons of India -- Appar, Sambantar and Sundarar who in their own way brought back into the Saiva fold the Jain kings of Pallava Pandiya nd Chera kingdoms. The movement was social as well as political and sought to bring about unity among all by raising the status of all into that of Adiyars, people in LOVE with BEING and in that also in love with each other. The most remarkable thing here was that NONVIOLENCE was practiced along VIOLENCE of a kind and given its metaphysical foundation -- LOVE as ruled by aruL, the GRACE of BEING.

This has been an important ingredient of Tamil culture from those ancient days. During the 19th century it was given also another kind of metaphysical explanation by ArutpiRakaasa VaLLalaar in his essay, Jiiva KaaruNya Ozukkam, wherein he says that deep deep down, at the lowest level of all the souls there lurks the capacity to be LOVE itself hence capable of Jiva KaruNya Ozukkam, behavior that shows nothing else but LOVE unto all.

But why does he say that this capacity lies buried deep deep down and NOT at the surface level itself?

The surface self or the worldly self is an EGO-SELF, that which lives FOR-ITSELF and only minimally FOR-OTHERS. The self FOR-ITSELF is an acquisitive self and one of the things that it seeks to acquire is POWER unto itself and become TYRANNICAL and IRRATIONAL when it falls fully for it. This is the FALL that breeds violence and destruction and while Gita attributes this to the dominance of Tamasa Guna, a notion taken from the ancient Samkya, Saiva Siddhanta attributes it to aaNavam, the primordial and uncreated Satanic force within all that can do nothing else but annihilate and destroy. The egotism itself is a product of this and when the person FALLS i.e. does actions in the direction of the inner pull of this aaNavam, he augments the presence of this Dark Stuff within and becomes irrational, fiendish and Satanic. The first thing that such a person would do is to expunge from whatever under his control the rational discourse for it is that which serves as the antidote for his fiendish irrationality.

The dominance of such individuals lead to wars, terrorist attacks, wanton destruction of properties - in short the transformation of the world into a desolate desert landscape where no vegetation grows. At the face of this faceless and immensely destructive and meaningless terrorism, the human beings realize that it is beyond their will and capacities to put an end to it and bring back fertility and prosperity. It is also at this point that BEING discloses HImself as the WARLORD and the world itself as a war ar.senal to rescue the innocents. At least this is the way Sambantar sees the matter as shown in the following verse:

cadaiyaar punaludaiyaanoru cari koovaNamudaiyaan
padaiyaar mazuvudaiyaan pala puutappadai yudaiyaan
madamaanvizi umaimaatu idam udaiyaan enai udaiyaan
vidaiyar kodiyudaiyaan idam viizimmizalaiyee

The BEING who resides in this temple of Tiruviizimizalai who also has me as his humble servant has disclosed Himself in
the following archetypal forms (to instruct me about His essence). He appears with the Ganges filling his tuft to disclose
that He is behind the luxuriance and abundance that we see in the world and in contrast to that as the mendicant wearing
only the loin cloth to show that He is capable of installing asceticism in the mind so that the worldly desires are sundered.
He also shows Himself as the manifest world where also as the WARLORD where the basic elements that constitute the
cosmos are kept as His war ar.senal
showing that he can wage wars with the evil powers through floods, earthquakes,
storms prolonged dry spells
and so forth. He is also the lord of the army of warrior gods who wield the axes to chop of
the heads of the evil doers if need to be. Strangely He is not only such a warlord but also the supreme lover who keeps
as His left half the ever young and voluptuous Umai and because of it enjoying supreme youthful virility as indicated
by the flag that carries the BULL as His symbol.

BEING becomes the brave WARLORD using the basic elements of the world itself as his weapons along with the devas as his soldiers to wage wars against the Satanic forces that have become mad with irrational desires for Power.


[This message has been edited by Webmaster (edited February 25, 2009).]

#778 - March 06, 2009 05:34 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Hermeneutics and the Temple as Text

One of the crucial notions that will become of great importance in our future deliberations on the meaning of religion is that of Temple as TEXT and the hermeneutics it implies. When we look at everything from the point of view of Hermeneutics, i.e. the need to UNDERSTAND existence, everything - the tree over there, the rocks here, the meandering rivers, snow clad hills etc., all will be seen as TEXTS in the sense that we LEARN something in beholding them. They TEACH us something provided we are willing to LEARN. In Chinese ART, where NATURE is depicted as it is, where nature is allowed to be what it is in the paintings, is a case in point. There the EGO of man is NOT allowed to interfere and distort nature. The VIOLENCE of man's EGO is NOT permitted to devastate nature and transform it to a shape where like Picasso's paintings the grotesque in man is allowed to manifest itself. The EGO, especially the beastly side of it, is kept under control and NATURE allowed to be as it is.

This is central also in AGAMISM where the God and gods are allowed to be whatever they are and man subdued, just simply UNDERSTANDS them, understand the PLAY of BEING. And also in complete trust and LOVE allows being played by BEING. As Appar said: aadduvitaal aaroruvar aadaataaree? If played by BEING, who can refuse to be played?

The recognition of the TEMPLE as a TEXT is born out from this attitude: be OPEN to the gods and their Play. The temple as TEXT embodies this notion and it become a place where we can witness the game the divine forces play to keep the world going in the right direction. This allows us to answer the question about temple worship. Well if temple is text then temple worship has to be the READING of the TEXT. The mantras recited, the arcanas practiced, the observations of the various rituals festivals and so forth, in short the various acts of WORSHIP are in fact ways of READING the TEMPLE as TEXT.

What Kind of Text is the Temple?

From the point of view of hermeneutics, everything is a text and human understanding itself is TEXTUAL, no matter how hard it tries, it cannot escape from its textuality. But then the TEMPLE in being a text has to be something special, something that makes it an integral part of what we call the religious dimensions of existence. And it is here that we have to bring in the distinction between the physics and metaphysics and understand the temple as texts of the metaphysical world. In Sumerian times itself the temple was considered as something lowered down by AN, the present day aaNdavan of the Tamils, meaning God or BEING. The temple is NOT the product of the human mind but rather a presentation of the metaphysical realms, something emerging from the DEPTHS and standing there as a TEXT whose contents are the elements of the metaphysical world or the world of the UNCONSCIOUS or more appropriately the CONCEALED WORLD, the MaRaip PoruL.


#779 - March 08, 2009 11:18 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Loc: KL
The Temple as a TEXT - 2

How to understand this?

We can bring in the notion of DREAMS to explain this. The dreams are NOT products of human thinking for they are had while one is asleep and when all the intellectual efforts are put to sleep. The dreams EMERGE from the depths, they are disclosures of a kind which are experienced by the dreaming subject. Not only that - bulk of the dreams have a MESSAGE and the dreamer quite often has to INTERPRET the dreams in order to UNDERSTAND and grasp the message. The dreams are TEXTUAL and are fabricated by mental processes beyond the control of the person. They are THRUST upon the individuals as a way of helping them out provided they interprets them and understands them. What is most relevant for us here is that while they constitute a kind of experience they are NOT fabricated by the human mind but rather projected into the mind for the person to experience something that is NOT normally available to him. Thus in a way the person is inducted into the metaphysical realms through being made to experience dreams and dream-like experiences.
Temple is something like a dream - a projection from the Depths, from the metaphysical realms and thus a presentation in which a person is made experience the Depths, the concealed realms, just as real as the physical but normally beyond the reach of the senses.

Thus temple worship is akin to dream interpretation exercises - we interpret the deities rituals and what not as a way of understanding the Depths and where lurks the forces that shape our destiny, the secrets of our daily life. And when temples remain faithful to the way they are disclosed and where they are built the way they are disclosed, then they become RELIABLE for understanding the metaphysical realms.

Mind Transcendence
Temple worship is a hermeneutic journey into the Depths, into the metaphysical realms. And there is a DANGER here which must be understood. For the Temples can FASCINATE the mind and imprison it - imprison to the worship of particular deity and make the mind fanatical through a mental fixation. A person has to FIGHT against this possibility and it is here that I notice the relevance of Polytheism and its ability to combat mental fixation towards a particular deity or even a religion. The worship of DIFFERENT deities with the understanding that all the deities are equally to be respected and worshiped, serves in addition to acknowledging the TRUTH about the WAYS of BEING, also keeps the mind FREE of fixations and hence fluid and sane.

The understanding that BEING presents Himself in a countless number of FORMS , though in Himself ONE, ensures the OPENNESS that also serves the TRANSCENDENCE towards higher and higher metaphysical realms.

The person is made to move from deity to deity, from temple to temple and in this mental pilgrimage, made also to enjoy a metaphysical journey that does not trap the mind and make it fanatical.

And when the mind thus cultured looks at the world religions, it will also see all the world religions as different deities, different temples and thus refuse to be imprisoned by any one of them. It will accept all without however being fanatically attached to one particular religion and thus seek to convert the whole world to a particular religion and wage even wars to succeed in it, come what may and even end up in barbaric terrorists attacks when one fails in that desire to convert. Fanaticism is ultimately an expression of human EGO and this what temple worship will not foster.


#780 - March 12, 2009 05:44 PM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Truth Scriptures and Deathlessness-1

One of the problems with religions is that traditions are established on the basis of the compilations of the utterances of a specially gifted individual who sounds very mystical along with some metaphysical claims he makes and the whole compilation later becomes something very authoritative with the capacity to found a religion. The historical processes that go into the compilation, the uncertainties and ambiguities that pervaded originally become very soon forgotten and the compilation becomes something emotionally an IDOL, something that mesmerizes a collectivity conferring them a separate social identity. We can see this in the histories of the Vedas, the Buddhists and Jain Agamas, the Saiva Tevaram Corpus, the Divvya Prabahntam of Tamil Vaisnavism, and in the middle East Bible AlKoran and so forth. For a historian of thoughts this constitutes a problem, a phenomenon that needs to be understood and made sense of. For the most bitter quarrels among people are actually between such collectivities where a presumed THREAT to the religious identity and its survival is sufficient to call for a Holy War, a Jihad or Crusade or something like that where killings ensue with heaven as reward for such warroirs and where they are also honored as martyrs.

In this I want to single out the Tamil scriptural tradition for one of the things I notice about it is that though it has scriptures, the production of scriptures however has been CONTINUOUS with the later ones ACCEPTED along with the earlier and hence NOTHING standing as the most authoritative like the Vedas Bible and AlKoran and so forth. There seems to a mechanism at work where NO SINGLE scriptural compilation is allowed a pre-eminent place in the religious life of the people and which has contributed somewhat towards the unification of religions and sustaining of Bakthi, the genuine devotion to BEING that appears to be inherent to all human beings as long as they don't allow it to be suppressed by other emotions.

The Openness of Tamil Scriptural Tradition

Despite some over simplifications, I think I am essentially right in this for in the other traditions there hasn't been such productive processes at work . In Tamil we have in addition to the above also the 14th cent. Thirupukaz and the 19th cent. Thriuvarudpa selections from which are sung even in the temples. There is also an OPENNESS to accept such scriptures should they be produced in the future. And it is this OPENNESS for scriptures, the readiness of the mind to accept NEW scriptures without being threatened and without being excessively worried and psychotic about the place of the old that I want to understand as I see that it has some relevance to the current world situation where conflict have come about because of an extreme emotional attachment to scriptures. Conflict seem to be precipitated by reading THREATS to one's religion and hence to the authority of scriptures that founds it and this only because there is a RELUCTANCE and REFUSAL to FREE the mind of identities especially the religious. The more committed an individual is to a religion, the LESS FREE he seems to be PURE of such tradition-fostered identities.

Organizing Culture towards TRUTH

Could it be that the meaning of the present world crisis is precisely that - to make human beings become more OPEN and thereby become LESS emotionally attached towards the religion that one has been born into or has accepted as one's own through the mechanism of conversion? And something the Indians have learned long long ago and because of which they formulated philosophically the most meaningful phrase (to me) " Satyam Eva Jayate" and which actually consists an antidote to such mystical-magical identities. For TRUTH stands always humiliating the intellect of man, as something that he must submit to but without feeling the ego being hurt or bashed in the process. TRUTH demands submission not by arresting and mesmerizing the intellect but by giving maximum FREEDOM to it, something that stands as an important fabric of Indian culture no matter how untidy it may appear at times.


#781 - April 03, 2009 03:27 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Trigunas and Tattvas

There is no way to determine the dominant guna (qualities) of a person, no tool, no tests. Even IQ and EQ tests are discredited these days. Besides, a person's inclination changes every few years, and certainly in every age and with each experience in life. The mind is much more complex and it cannot be reduced to an interplay of three gunas. So the triguna theory remains an outmoded theory, much like alchemy. Or astrology, the religion of fools. Our knowledge of the workings of the mind and psychoanalysis has vastly improved. Those shastras that talks of gunas should be in the attic.

The only reliable way to test a person's inclinations and aptitude is by way of education, exposure, and a degree in the chosen field. That is the best bet and that is the unanimous state of the world today.

All the cultures in the past had traditional knowledge, sciences and remedies. It explained what little they knew of man, his body and mind. It was the result of observations and trial and error. Often such knowledge and it's concomitant terminology and nomenclature was embedded in religious books or shastras and therefore acquired hallowedness. Usage of the word guna is linked to saguna and nirguna, then linked to brahman and so it acquires status as irrefutable vedic truths.

In the last 500 years we have modern sciences based on empirism and demonstrable truths and proofs. It is modern as opposed to traditional. These modern sciences have come to replace largely all of the traditional sciences the world over. Here and there in many third world nations the old battle still continues between modern sciences and traditional knowledge, where the ignorant still pursue traditional knowledge and remedies based on blind believe, and not on empiricism which is demonised as western or christian.

Segments of Indian population is one such third world nation still in the dungeons of medieval ignorance, grappling with the fast fading past. Its advocates are naturally of the priestly class who maintained such religious books in the past and defend it as revealed knowledge among the gullible, most of whom are their own tribe. These are the pariahs of the modern age, the quacks, peddling superstition inorder to maintain their hold on the diminishing native believing population, most of whom are too exasperated to spend time to refute charlatans and conmen.

Naturally there is an attempt to feign ignorance, that traditionally and as per the sanskrit lexicon it is the agamas and vedas that are considered revealed knowledge or shruti, and all the rest are considered smirthi. The trick is to slip in the smirthi as shruti.

Of course I accept such things as revealed knowledge, the direct transmission of knowledge from the elements and gods. But not everything is revealed knowledge. This is where the obfuscation starts, and everything, all texts, samkhya, nyaya, etc and superstition is slipped under the codeword shruti! The point was to get everyone's immediate attention and servility to such claims and arguments which often comes with some veneer of confounded logic.

The triguna theory was made redundant a thousand years ago with the advent of the 36 tattva theory by saiva siddhanta, which was itself a development of the 25 tattva theory of samkhya. The 36 tattva theory explains about god, soul and the world in entirety, making it universal. There is NO PLACE in the 36 tattva theory for the gunas!

The tattva theory is the latest 'state of the art' Hindu philosophy, the cutting edge of metaphysical knowledge, that has superceded, made obsolete, outdated and redundant all other existing schools of thought! Much like Dalton's Atomic Theory was made obsolete by Quantum Physics. Those speaking of advaita vedanta, dvaita, visishadvaita, etc., all also talking of 800 year old redundant schools of thought!

The triguna theory posits the existence of three gunas that governs the inclinations, attitudes, aptitude, temperament or modus operandi of the individual. There is no basis for such a postulate! It is just a medieval belief.

The triguna theory explains the workings of men and women vis-a-vis another and society. It is the theoretical basis of the varna theory.

Siddhanta is not concerned with that, it concerns itself with the relationship of man to god and how to get there (moksha). It does not concern itself with societal relationships. Man's societal relationship is irrelevant to his spiritual journey!

The agamas, bakti literature and the tattva theory in total referred to as saiva siddhanta, has circumvented all that by explaining man, his relationship with god and the world, by the anava and karma malam in a world of maya. 'Circumvented' means side-stepped and made redundant!

It is these malams that guide our inclinations and life. You are NOT your gunas, you are your anava and karma malams! Get it? It is the malams that restrict you, or enable you. Worship is the only way to 'disable malams, which happens naturally with the grace of god. Only worship is relevant to a man's spiritual journey. (see above for irrelevant.)

The tattvas have been mentioned in several shastras. Here is an authoritative one taken from the Tirumantiram and Kirana Agama.

The 36 Tattvas: Categories of Existence

Do we see gunas among any of the tattvas? NO!

The triguna and tattva theories are 'alternative theories', and is not just a change in nomenclature and definitions. However some like Kashmir Saivism and some shakta setcs do explain tattvas a bit differently. We also know that Aghorasiva of saiva siddhanta too made some changes in the tattva explanations. Those are details.

The triguna theory is a lingering idea from the now extinct vaisesekha and purva mimamsa schools of thought. The vaisesekha and purva mimamsa schools accepts 24 and 9 gunas respectively. Let us not mix it with the siddhanta and vedanta schools of thought that only accepts tattvas. The also defunct samkhya school of thought accepts 24 tattvas, vedanta accepts 25, and siddhanta accepts 36.

Many are so deluded that they do not realise that there is no triguna theory in the vedanta philosophies too, which accepts the tattva system, although vedantists do accept triguna-varna theory for societal relationships. This is an anomaly that they have not figured out how to resolve. The anomaly is, they say one thing and do another. There is a word in the english language for this. One cannot accept both the sattva and triguna theory. They are mutually exclusive.


[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited April 06, 2009).]

#782 - April 16, 2009 04:20 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Monism & Dualism in the Tirumantiram

Advaita means not two. It is neither monist, or dualist. It is midway between one and two. So it is described in the negative as 'not-two'. This squashes any theory that it can be one, two, or three, or pluralistic.

The relationship between two entities can only be defined if both the entities are known and defined. Where one entity is unknown, then the relationship cannot be adequately defined. God is indescribable and limitless, transcending time and space. He defies definition. The soul is also not adequately known. Therefore the relationship between god and soul can never be positively defined. It can only be negatively defined, as not two, or, not one, or not this, not that. Hence it is described as Advaita.

The one constant theme that Tirumular keeps repeating is that jiva becomes siva. *That* is siddhanta!

This is slightly different from vedanta which says, 'you are That'.

Everything in the world is changing and becoming something. 'Becoming' seems more reasonable, appropriate and self evident as the world is always in a flux, always changing, and change is 'becoming'!

Upon becoming Siva, Tirumular says 'we' also share his powers of creation and descruction. That can only happen if the merger is total, with no retention of a separate soul.

I have openly challenged all siddhantins on Monism & Dualism, and more importantly have written extensively to show that the SJB is through and through non-dualist par excellence! Till today that stands unchallenged! What is the point of writing something on siddhanta when this finality is standing out like a sore thumb, unchallenged, making all other writing redundant and frivolous and spurious?
It is a mistake to say that there are 'a few' monistic verses in the Tirumantiram.

Here are 'a couple' of verses from the Tirumantiram. Let us hear Tirumular speak!

2659: At the Thought of Guru's Form Impurities Vanish
At the thought of Garuda's form
The serpent's poison leaves
Its terrors lose;
Unto it,
At the thought of Guru's form
The triple Malas leave instant;
The Jiva then Siva becomes.

2660: When Jiva Becomes Siva
None know where the Lord resides,
To those who seek where the Lord resides
The Lord within them resides;
When they the Lord see,
Jiva becomes Siva.

2697: Seek Himself as Yourself
Himself as Lord
In all things, He alone is;
Himself is Yourself
Thus you seek Him;
The very Heaven is He in this vast earth;
Sweet is He;
May you Him adore.

2711: The Five Letters Denote the Five Relations in the Liberation Process
The Five-lettered name of Siva (Sivayanama)
Is Siva-Sakti (Grace);
Si for Siva, Va for Sakti, Ya for Jiva,
Na for Tirodayi and Ma for Maya (impure);
Thus the Five Letters, five relations denote;
As you chant with Si first (that is as Si Va Ya Na Ma)
You are of Karmas freed;
Births no more will be
You shall Para-Siva become.

2795: He is Tattvas and Their Goal
The Lord is the beginning of Vedas
He is beyond Nada Tattvas;
(Knowing this not,)
They sought the pleasures of this world
And in them revelled;
He is the Tattvas in order placed
And their Lord too at once;
In that in separateness
He commingling stood.

2820: Lord Himself Removed "I" and "He" Distinction
As I and He, I separate sought;
And as I thus sought,
"I and He are separate are not;"
-Thus the Lord of Primal Jnana Himself granted,
And then no more was the thought of I and He.

2833: How Jnanis Reach Satya-Jnana-Ananda
The Tattvas six times six
That in Eye-brow Center stand
In Waking State,
They left behind;
They rid themselves of Malas;
Were purified in Turiya that is Pure (Suddha);
Freed of the bondage condition (Pedda)
They became Siva;
Beyond that they ascended into
Satya-Jnana-Ananda (Truth-Knowledge-Bliss that is Sat-Chit-Ananda).
They, the Jnanis True.

2846: Knowledge of the Way of Becoming
I knew the Way of Becoming,
I knew the Way of Seeking the Rare One,
I knew the Way of Entrance to Him;
No more the egoity,
None other the locale
The Primal One I become,
He and I one will be.

2921: Jiva Becomes Siva by Kundalini Yoga
When the Owl gets to the top of Kurunda tree
And realizes desire is the source of world
Then the Snake standing in the Center teaches (Jnana)
And Jiva, Siva becomes.

2948: Merging into Void
Undistracted, I sit aloof and meditate,
Doubt-free, I follow the ancient Vedas,
I cross the awesome waste, this life is,
And beyond into the Void, that defies imagination,
I merge.

2991: Still Your Thoughts and Be Purified
Unto muddied water these men's minds are,
Unclear in vision,
They see not and say, "This is Lord;"
From the heart's lake within,
Draw a pitcherful,
And keep it in stillness apart;
When you thus purify it,
You shall become Siva.

3010: All Emanate From Him Alone
If directions cardinal are all of Siva,
Why speak of someone else, O! you men!
All smoke from Fire emanates,
All creation from our Primal Lord arises.

(The analogy for creation is provided here.)

3045: He is Deathless
Water, earth, sky, fire and wind,
The spark of light within the body,
- All these He is;
He is Paraparam, He is Siva, Our Lord,
He is the walking Jiva here below,
Deathless He is.

2263 Turiyatita is the State Ultimate
With Tattvas six times six
And Avastas of ten states
He, Jiva, enters the final state
Of Turiyatita,
Then will the Divine Gift be (Mukti);
And Jiva merges into the Light Resplendent;
Which the Five Gods reach;
There, the Siva of Holy Ashes,
Jiva's Refuge Final are.

2314 In Jiva-Siva Union All Fade
When that State is attained,
Where the Self becomes Siva,
The Malas, the Pasas diverse,
Gunas and experiences
That arose for the estranged Jiva,
Will all, all, fade,
Even as does the beams of the moon
In the presence of the rising sun.

2341 Grace of Sakti Leads to Siva
As fire and heat
Are Siva and Sakti;
With Him as Substance
She, Jiva's awareness espouses;
Darkness and Light She is;
She pervades too Malas Three;
And then by Light of Grace
She makes Jiva the very Siva.

2345 When Tattvas Are Transcended, Grace Descends and Union in Siva Takes Place
He, Jiva,
Abandoning Tattvas six times six
Realized the Self;
He the Finite became
And pervaded,
He (Jiva) in them (Tattvas) and they in him;
Yet transcending them
He passed into the Beyond;
And as Grace descends on him
He doubt-free Jnana attained
And Siva became.

Seat of Jnana Within
Above the flower of the heart, (Visuddha Adhara)
Is a flower of petal sixteen,
There is Jnana Pure,
Sivananda (Siva-Bliss) it is;
When jnana of Self
In it merged
Jiva united in Siva
And as one remained.

2380 Jnana
The way of Self-Jnana
Is to be one with Siva;
In the Kalanta
Devotional love disappears;
Sans speech, sans sentience
Jiva becomes Being Great
Unto Nandi Himself,
That is beyond speech and thought.

2393 Of the Six Ends Vedanta and Siddhanta Alone Show the Path to Siva-Becoming.
Is the goal of Vedanta and Siddhanta

The rest four Ends lead not to Siva-Becoming,
--Siva that is Sadasiva--
And so it is that Vedanta and Siddhanta
Are wondrous Ways indeed.

2397 Veda and Agama Alike Revealed by God
Veda and Agama alike
Are revelations of God,
That is Truth;
The one is general
The other special;
Their goals two, they say;
Search them both,
For the truly learned,
There is difference none.

(the above two verses shows the unity of both vedas and agamas.)

2437 The Three States Lead to Siva-Becoming
Tvam-Padam, Tat-Padam and Asi-Padam
He who has these three states of liberation attained,
Has verily become Para-Para Himself;
No more birth shall be for him;
And when he departs
He shall indeed Siva be.

2440 Asi-Pada Experience
When Jiva and Para
Reach Asi-Pada State
And in pervasive Siva merge,
Then as sweetness compounded
Of milk, honey, and ambrosia
Will He in the Silentness agreeable appear.

2485 Jiva, Para and Siva Are One in Three Places
One person in places three functions
Yet may be as three different appear;
Unto this
Are Jiva, Para and Siva;
One are they
But in different places appear.

(Parasiva, Siva and Jiva are one and the same but appear as three in three places.)

2497 Lord is in the Void Beyond the Three Voids
Of Himself, daily,
Nandi that rides the bull
Blesses you,
With impediment none;
And when I reach His Feet,
I cross the Void,
And in that Void
That imagination transcends
I merge.

2501 Transcend All Experiences, Caused and Causal
When Caused Experiences Seven of Jiva
And Causal Experiences Seven of Para
Cause and Caused Difference vanish,
Then Jiva becomes Siva for sure.

2510 Upasanta State--The Tenth State
Entering into Upasanta experience,
Jiva becomes Siva;
There immersed in Siva-Bliss
Jiva into Siva merges;
Enjoying that Bliss experience
It abides constant there;
That Experience engrosses
All the ten of Jiva
(From Jagrat Upwards to Siva Turiya.)

2511 Shore Beyond
Merged in One with Sakti and Siva,
As cool waters into wavy sea
And realizing Truth of Holy Word,
That is ambrosial sweet
Jiva reaches the Shore Beyond
That indeed defies speech.

(Merging is as water in wavy sea.)

2519 Think of Him Continuously
He whom even Celestials know not,
Think of Him, in the waking dawn,
Continuous think of Him morn, noon and eventide
If thus you perservere,
You shall become the very Paraparam.[/]

2538 Beyond Ninth State
As nine states beginning with Jagrat are experienced,
Attachment to Malas and Gunas,
That emanate birth, vanish;
In Transcendental Turiya State
Then Void (Satya-Jnana-Podu) succeeds,
Truth and Jnana filled
[b]Where Jiva and Siva one are;

In Turiyas rest
Jiva and Siva are two,
That now in Void is one Manifestness (Svarupa).

(Where exactly is Siva and Jiva two, and where exactly is Siva and Jiva One. At one stage in the merger there is dualism, then in the next stage there is absolute monism. This statement is all important for the monist and the dualist!)

2548 Make Maya Vanish
When Maya veils Jiva,
The Truth of Vedas remains hidden;
When Maya leaves,
The Truth of Himself reveals;
Those who can make Maya vanish
Merge in God;
No more is body; no more is mind.

2570 Confluence of Three States Jiva, Para and Siva
The Jiva (Deva Datta) becomes So-Ham
And by the speech of grammatical convention triple
Is in Tvam-Tat-Asi
With attributes thus transferred
There Jiva is Jiva, Para and Siva,
All in one.

2571 Tat-Tvam-Asi of Vedanta is the Same as Thom-Tat-Asi of Siddhanta-Vedanta
Tvam-Tat-Asi is the same as Thomtatasi
The one comes conjoined as the other
The holy concept of (You-being-I) Tat-Tvam-Asi belongs to Vedanta;
The concept of I-Siva-becoming (Thomtatasi) is Siddhanta-Vedanta.

Hear ye, hear ye; this is the fine distinction of vedanta and siddhanta.

2577 Mahavakyam: You Become That
"You Become That"--
Thus the Great Expression (Mahavakyam) stood;
And I became That;
Thus to Siva Becoming
Nandi blessed me;
And as I became That
In Infinite Bliss I was immersed.

2578 From Jiva to "Aum"--Five Stages
Jiva becomes Para;
And that Para-Jiva becomes Siva;
And from that Vedic Lamp of Siva
Arose the light of Paraparan;
And in turn fills as Aum
That no speech could describe.

2582: Jiva Becomes Para and then Siva
He, Nandi, is within Atita
And Beyond it;
He, Jiva, Jnana bereft of,
And enters Atita;
And attains Jnana
And rid of Ignorance dark, Para becomes;
Then will with God (Pati) one be.

2587: Absolute Union
Even as shadow disappears with body,
Even as bubble returns into water,
Even as flame of camphor leaves traces none,
So is it when Jiva into Param unites.

(The merger is total without any trace of the soul.)

2588: Total Merging
When body and Jiva
As unbroken unite (in Yoga)
Then shall Grace of Siva Sakti be;
Then does Jiva, Param become;
Jiva that leaves this body,
Pervasive then becomes;
With beginning and end none
In Siva forever it merges.

2590: When Jiva Becomes Para
Jiva becomes Para;
That Para pervasive stands;
Immanent too in all creation it is;
A mighty Power it is,
That can dissolve and create universes vast;
This was the boon granted to me;

And thus is my state exalted.

(Tirumular was granted the boon of creation!)

2596: Knowledge That Knows All
What avails you
If you know all,
But not the Knowledge that knows all?
When you can say,
"I am the Knowledge that knows all"
Then can you well say,
"I am God."

2620: Realize the Truth that Jiva is Siva
That this Jiva to become Siva
They in love sought not;
That this Jiva is Siva
That truth they know not;

Knowing not this Jiva is Siva,
They diverse births take,
And into worlds several wander

(Wander, pluralists, wander aimlessly, from birth to birth!) For all I care!

2621: Jnanis are not for Becoming Performing Gods
The Five Gods consign Jiva to broiling miseries,
And then cooling him,
Again consign him to fresh birth;
Thus in the whirl of creation endless they them ordain;
The status of these Five Gods
The Jnanis seek not;
But within the fleshly body itself
Through the mystic thread of Sushumna
They enter into union,
One with the Lord.

2646: Be not Separated from Lord
Holding the Sword of Jnana
That Primal Lord gifted me,
None there is to separate me (from Him);
Search did I there further
Leaving traces none;
Then Jiva with Primal Siva one became.

(No trace!! The soul is no more intact, it is annihilated)

2647: Search Lord in Calmness
Pasa, that seminal seed of birth
Maya, that invisible one,
Karma, that to desire gives birth,
The doubts and fears
That in their train come,
The births numerous,
-All these I scorched;
Thus my thoughts purified,
In calmness I search;
The skilful ones that practise thus
Shall one with Tat-Para be.

1714 Sadasiva is the Adhvas too
Worldly joys and heavenly pleasures
Wisdom and miraculous powers
The body and the state beyond
The Tattvas six and thirty
All these Sadasiva granted;
The Adhvas six, too, of Agamas sacred
Are all but He--Sadasiva.

(All the tattvas of the world as well as the adhvas (minds) are He.)

1731 Sadasiva comprehends all Nine God-Forms
Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesa,
And the Five-faced Lord above,
Bindu, Nada, Sakti Primal, and Siva
--All these are but Sadasiva in general.

1734 Sakti Devolutes still further
In that Truth arose the Avastas (States of Awareness) twice five;
In that Truth arose the Rasis (Zodiacal houses) twice six
In that Truth arose the Tattvas (Body Constituents) twice forty-eight;
In that Truth arose the Sadasiva Supreme.

(From the Sakti arose all tattvas.)

1737 Sakti is the Kinetic and Siva the potential Aspects of God-head
Sakti is this wide world
Sakti is this universe vast
Sakti-Siva conjoint is the Kinetic and Potential
Sakti is the Formed;
Siva the Formless;
Sakti-Siva Tattvas are six and thirty true.

1738 Sadasiva is Tattva (Truth) Real
Formless is the Tattva primal
Formed, it is the world, animate and inanimate;
A source of pleasure then indeed it is;
Tattva is all and pervasive,
Sadasiva is Tattva (Truth) Real.

1764 Sadasiva is Form-Formless
In the Center He is, Sadasiva,
The Four below are the Formed,
(Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesa)
The Four above are the Formless
(Bindu, Nada, Sakti, Siva)
Thus are His parts
He, the Parasiva.

1807 The Nine God Forms are of Siva
Siva, Sakti, the luminous Nada and Bindu
The five-faced Sadasiva holy,
Mahesa, Rudra, Mal and the lotus-seated Brahma
--All these forms nine
He assumes.

1810 The Form, Formless and Form-Formless Aspects of Siva
The first four (Siva, Sakti, Nada, Bindu) are His Form-less ones;
The un-moving Form-Formless is the Sadasiva;
The abiding last four (Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahesa)
Are the Formed ones;
All these and the One beyond too are He.

1932 Siva is Seed, Bindu is Embryo
Without seed is embryo none,
Except from seed the embryo appears not;
The seed and the embryo are but one, separate never;
Thus are the Bindu and Siva too;
This you should know.

1924 Thirty Six Tattvas Devolute
Bindu attains modification five times five (twenty-five)
Nada attains modification four and six (ten)
The rest two--Sakti and Siva--attain not modification
But activate the other two--Bindu and Nada.

(From Siva came bindu and nada. From bindu and nada arose the 36 tattvas. This disproves the pluralistic notion that pasam is an independent entity.)

1969 Sivoham when Bindu Subsides
In union of Bindu and Nada
Was born this creation vast;

It is beginning and end of all life,
Of great mantras too,
When Bindu subsides,
Then is Sivoham.*

2007 Lord Creates Activating Saktis Jnana and Kriya
Vaikhari and rest of Sounds,
Maya and rest of Impurities,
Purusha and rest of Tattvas
--All these,
Acting on Saktis, Jnana and Kriya,
The Lord True from time immemorial made.

1789 Knower becomes the Known
He and he knows Him not;
If he knows Him, then Knower is he not;
If he knows Him
Then he the Knower and He the Known
Become but one.

1819 By Inner Light Unite One in Siva
Interminable are light and darkness
Only to those who have light, will darkness cease;
To the eyes that see light, darkness is not;
So, too, when the inner light dispells darkness
The Jiva with Siva one becomes.

(There is no darkness, no separation of siva and jiva to those who see the light.)

2017 Jiva and Siva are One
Jiva and Siva
Separate are not;
Jiva knows not Siva;
When Jiva knows Siva;
Jiva becomes Siva.

(The apparent separation of siva and jiva will only disappear to those who see the light.)

2019 Lord is Knowledge and Knower
He is all Knowledge, immune from Ignorance,
Without aid of sensory organs, He is self-Illumined,
Himself as Knowledge and Himself as the Knower too
He is the Jiva as well,
He stands pervasive all.

2077 They Think of I and You as Two
The two, I and You, in union one stood,
Undifferentiated as One Becoming;
For them is there no more Two, I and You;
They who speak of I and You as two
To them He is I and You, forever two;
He, the Being, One and One above.

(To those who think Siva and Jiva are two - to them He is foreever separate. To the pluralists Siva is forever not with them.)

1437 Siddhanta is to Unite With Siva
You and He are not two separate
You and He are but one united;

Thus do you stand,
Freed of all sectarian shackles;
Adore the Feet of Paraparai
And with Siva become One;
That the way Siddhanta fulfills.

1440: Goal of Suddha Saivas is to be One With Siva
They tarry not in the Pure Maya Sphere of Siva Tattvas
There they but attain the status of Gods,
But that as a spring board
Their Soul reaches farther out to Siva Himself
And merging in His union, Self-effacing,
Themselves become Immaculate Siva

They, forsooth, are Suddha Saivas.

1441: I and You Difference Effaced
I sought Him in terms of I and You
But He that knows not I from You
Taught me the truth, "I" indeed is "You"
And now I talk not of I and You.

(Tirumular too started his journey in dualism but was taught otherwise.)

1469: Stages of Attainment Through Jnana
Thus they say:
By devotion the Jiva first sojourns Lord's world;
Then comes to dwell in Lord's proximity;
Further on receives Lord's grace,
And in the end attains Jnana
In Sivohamic I and You union
Jiva shall himself Siva become.

(Proximity to the Lord (clinging to His feet, dualism) is one stage of attainment, but that is not the final attainment. The next and final attainment is merger with Siva. *That* is the goal of siddhanta and saivas, and not just proximity to Lord Siva in Sivaloka as the other gods and devas are content to do so.)

1481: Sanmarga Leads to Supreme Grace-Bliss
When you scorch Impurities five
And listen to the Voice of Silence
You become a pure Mukta;
And I and You in one merge;
And by the unsullied Grace Jnana grants
You shall joy of the Bliss Divine;
Verily, then by Sanmarga Path
You become He indeed.

(It is clear here that at first one is a mukta (stage one of attainment), then with His Grace there is merger (stage two of attainment). There are two stages of attainment. For saivas the ultimate goal is sayujyam or merger.

In all these are previous verses the stress is of 'becoming Siva', rather than the vedantic realising 'You are Siva'.

1509: Transformation of World-Knowledge
In Saloka Pasa Jnana (World knowledge) becomes Pasu Jnana (Spiritual knowledge)
In Samipa it becomes Arul Jnana (Grace-knowledge)
In Sarupa it is transformed into Pati Jnana (God-knowledge)
In Sayujya it is for ever dissolved.

(Tirumular goes on here to describe four stages of spiritual attainment. The jivanmukta is in Sarupa or knower of Pati. It is in the next stage, saayujyam, that the Knower becomes the Known.)

1512: Stages in the Soul's Pilgrimage
In the Soul's Pilgrimage towards God
The Path of Saivam describes stages four;
It is Saivam, when the Self forges a kindred tie with Siva (in Saloka)
It is Saivam, when the Soul realizes itself and nears God (in Samipa)
It is Saivam, when it leaves Samipa (and reaches Sarupa)
It is Saivam when it enjoys the final bliss of Sivananda,
The inextricable union in Sayujya.

(As above.)

1513: Sayujyam
Sayujya is the state of Jagra-Atita-the Beyond-Consciousness
Sayujya is to abide for ever in Upasantha,
The peace that knows no understanding
Sayujya is to become Siva Himself,
Sayujya is to experience the infinite power of inward bliss,
Forever and ever.

1558: All Faiths Lead but to Lord
One, the Great City,
Six, the roads that lead to it;
Thus are Faiths Six;
They that contend, "This true; That false"
Are unto the dog that in ire barks

To its own echo at hilly side.

(This verses is for those who bark that this is true and that is false. Tirumular was talking of most vedantins and siddhantins of today.

1018: Power of Sacrificial Fire
Becoming the Light within the Light
That from the sacrificial pit arises,
You attain the power,
To create and dissolve worlds twice seven;

The truth that is spread
Over extensive Vedas ancient,
I here state explicit
In one single book.

(Upon merger with Siva, one shares the power of creation and dissolution. The merger of jiva and siva is of that finality, undifferentiated.

That truth that is spread out and hidden in the vedas, Tirumular declares it explicitly in his one single Tirumantiram.)

1074: Herself Uncreated, She is Source of Creation
She as supreme Mistress of all creation stood
She the uncreated Being, Tatparai;
She is Worlds Fourteen
That from Bindu created;
She is World of Celestials,
She is Mind and Intellect goodly,
She is Siva-State too.

(Sakti is our mind too.)

1121: She is Kindred of Jiva
She is learning above all learning,
She is beginningless Vedas,
This they know not;
She is creation and its diversities,
She is Tattvas,[/]
She is Primal One,
She is kindred of Jiva,
Thus She assured me.

1179: [b]She is Cause and Caused

She stands as Spouse,
She stands as Tattvas,
She is the Cause
And the Caused at once,
She is the Ancient
That is enveloped by Bindu perfect,
She possesses the directions ten of this world.

(Shakti is the cause and the effect at the same time.)

1250: Sakti's Grace from Siva Worship
As I realized Him, our Isa
I lost my self;
As I united in Him

I became one with Him;
As I embraced the Lord of worlds all,
I remained in divine fulfillment,
As I entwined at the Primal One's Feet
I received His Sakti's Grace.

686: Powers Isatva Confers
He acquires the power to create
He acquires the power to preserve
He shall himself be Lord of destruction
He and Isa inextricably one become.

(Upon union with Siva the jiva acquires the powers of creation and destruction, as there is no more two!)

381: Act of Creation by the Primal One
Paraparam that has neither Beginning nor End,
In pure Consciousness consorted with Paraparai
And in that Light Pure arose Param;
And from union of Param with Parai immaculate
Was Nada born.

(Nada (and bindu) emerged from the union of siva and shakti. Thereafter bindu became the 24 evolutes - the building blocks of the universe. Bindu and Nada are the ultimate material cause of the world.)

383: Latent Maya Evolutes
From thence evoluted Maya
Latent in Sakti like lustre in crystal
Mighty its power
Beyond power of speech to recount.

(Maya emerged from the union of bindu and nada. It NOT an independent entity.)

384: Evolution of Maan Sakti--the Substratum of Matter
Away in the far distance of Time
Paraparam and Paraparai conjoined
Then did Nada with Bindu;
And further on Sadasiva with Sakti;
Thus was Maan born

The finite support of elements five.

385: Universe of Five Elements--Evolutes
Out of Maan evoluted space
From space, ether
From ether, water
From water, earth's hard crust;
Thus they formed in succession
The elements five;
They were for the universe
The nectar unto Flower.

410: Varieties of Creation
The Sun, Moon, Agni and rest of celestials,
The space, air, fire, water and earth
The sound, word, mind and the like
All these were of Maya born,
In union with Bindu.

(All of creation traces its origin back to nada, bindu, Siva and Sakti. It did not independently exist.)

412: He is the Totality
Himself as space and celestials stands,
Himself as body, life and matter stands,
Himself as sea, hill and dale stands,

Himself--all worlds' Lord Supreme.

(He himself became all this world.)

419: He Supports All Worlds
A miracle indeed it is
To sustain the myriad lives in the Universe;
Not less so,
When after total destruction
He draws them unto Himself;

He supports too
That Seventh World
The Path of yoga leads to.

(All lives (souls) dissolve into Him in the end.)

427: Four Forms of Death
When but birth--impediment uprooted,
Daily Death is unto Fated Death
And Fated Death unto Pure Death
And Pure Death unto Redemption Death
In that alone is the Truth--Jiva becoming Siva.

(Jiva become Siva only when the sajuyam merger takes place, not when one is a jivanmukta. In the jivanmukta state there is only proximity (togetherness) with Lord Siva but no union, yet.)

429: Void the Beginning and End
Out of Void, a plant (soul) it sprang,
To the Void it returns;

Yet shall it not be Void again;
In that Void, exhausted, it shall die;
That the fate of Hari and Brahma too,
Who the holocaust of Samhara survive not.

(Here is explained where souls came from. Souls sprang out from the Void, which is Parasivam or Brahman (in the same way Brahma and Vishnu sprang out from the same Void, Brahman. And to that Void it returns. The soul will be annihilated (die)!)

442: Lord is the Substance and Architect
Who seeks the luminous Nada atop
And of its sweetness savour
Know of death--no more;
The Lord is the seed of all
Of Sun, Moon and Fire
Of the Universe Vast
That Architect that builds all as well.

(The Lord is the Architect as well as the Substance at the same time, the efficient and material cause.)

It is a joke to say that there are only a few monistic verses, and that these few have been mistranslated or misunderstood. If that is what is insinuated, then someone does not know tamil, english, and the Tirumantiram!

In these last four articles we discussed nearly a hundred verses from the Tirumantiram, where the same message is repeated time and again. The Tirumantiram talks of siddhanta and when we say siddhanta we are talking of the Tirumantiram, or rather the vision of the Tirumantiram.

A siddhanta is a final conclusion, a vision of the highest truth, the final statement on our endeavours. In the Tirumantiram the final conclusion is 'souls become Siva'. That is the final siddhanta. What can be a higher siddhanta than souls becoming Siva? What more can God do? Is there anything better than becoming Siva? Therefore this is the highest and final siddhanta!

When we say siddhanta, it is this we mean. In the common man's mind he may mean siddhanta as a system of philosophy or the teachings of the agamas, or the culmination of vedanta or the SivaJnanaBodham of Meykandar. All this is partly true, as it is being descriptive of the summary of the texts and the philosophical dissertations. When we talk of siddhanta we are not talking of books, saints or philosophy, but a declaration of a truth!

Siddhanta is a declaration of the ultimate truth, that goal we are all searching for, that urge in us, which is in all life, that urge for perfection [ ]. And that is "I become Siva'. Becoming is twoness dissolving into oneness. Because there is twoness, there is an experience! If there is no twoness there is no experience! Meykandar states one can only know an object. God cannot be known as He is not an 'object', apart from you. He is You!

That is what the Tirumantiram speaks of, and attested to by latter day bakti saints, starting with Karaikal Ammaiyar, Appar, and with Sambandhar commenting 'Irumaiyin orumaiyum, Orumaiyin perumaiyum' - Twoness (becoming) to Oneness, the Glory of Oneness.

Later Meykandar gave a philosophical basis and erudition of this same siddhanta in the SivaJnanaBodham, where he too finally concludes, "O Saiva, know that You are Siva". The glory of the SJB is that with his refutations Meykandar established this siddhanta as 'that which stands all tests', and remains unchallenged. Later still several other scholar saints elaborated on the SJB as the primary commentaries and these came to be called the 14 Meykandar Shastras.

Following that a number of writers commented still more on these texts in tamil and sanskrit making these the secondary commentaries. Here some confusion arose where the writers got lost in a maze of terms, details and arguments. They lost sight of the final siddhanta of Tirumular and Meykandar, and lost sight of the tattva* evolutes. Fortunately that confusion was put to rest two years ago, by restating the ultimate siddhanta, by restating the original vision, in a series of articles posted here in this forum.

Now we are back to the original final siddhanta as declared in the Tirumantiram and unfolded in detail in the SivaJnanaBodham. And this siddhanta is the declaration of the ultimate truth that You Become Siva.

Tirumalar while discussing many mantras and yogas, asserts that we need to only worship Him with water and flowers, praise Him and adore Him with hymns and the straight path or sanmarga to this goal, the ultimate mantra, is to chant Aum NaMaSiVaYa. This underscores an even higher truth, higher than even knowledge or jnana, that bakti or Love is the highest truth and path, and that Siva is Love, or Sivam. Thus arising another declaration - Anbe Sivam! And this Love is *that urge* in all life! Meykandar too concludes that the ultimate path is to chant this ainthu eluthu, Panchakshara mantra.

We now have that vision, and the path to that siddhanta!


"That-ness" or "essential nature." Tattvas are the primary principles, elements, states or categories of existence, the building blocks of the universe.Lord Siva constantly creates, sustains the form of and absorbs back into Himself His creations. Rishis describe this emanational process as the unfoldment of tattvas, stages or evolutes of manifestation, descending from subtle to gross, starting from Siva Tattva right down to the elements. At mahapralaya, cosmic dissolution, they enfold into their respective sources, with only the first two tattvas surviving the great dissolution. The first and subtlest form --the pure consciousness and source of all other evolutes of manifestation -- is called Siva tattva, or Parashakti-nada. But beyond Siva tattva lies Parashiva -- the utterly transcendent, Absolute Reality, called attava. That is Siva's first perfection. The Sankhya system discusses 25 tattvas. Saivism recognizes these same 25 plus 11beyond them, making 36 tattvas in all. These are divided into three groups: 1) First are the five shuddha (pure) tattvas. These constitute the realm of shuddha maya 2) Next are the seven shuddha-ashuddha b(pure-impure) tattvas. These constitute the realm of shuddhashuddhamaya. 3) The third group comprises the 24 ashuddha (impure) tattvas.These constitute the realm of ashuddha maya. THE SUDDHA TATTVAS: Actinic or spiritual energy. This is the superconscious realm, also known as shuddha (pure) maya or mahamaya. Bindu, transcendent light, is the "material" cause of this pure sphere. This is the Sivaloka, the region of the 330 million Gods, the myriad rishis and other beings who have attained freedom from the triple bondage and remain with Him in close proximity. 1) Siva tattva: "auspiciousness," of two parts: the higher is Parashakti, "Supreme Energy," from which emerges primal sound, nada (more precisely Paranada, soundless sound). Though most often referred to as sound,nada is more mystically known as movement, the first impulse arisingfrom perfect quiescence, the first "thing" out of the motionless Self.This is Siva's second perfection, Parashakti, superconsciousness, themind of God. The Siva tattva pervades all other 35 categories andpossesses the powers of will, knowledge and action (icchha, jnana,kriya). 2) Shakti tattva: energy, corresponds to bindu, light, thecause of form (more precisely Parabindu, primal nucleus). This is the tattva of Parameshvara, the Primal Soul, father-mother God, Siva's third perfection, who after mahapralaya remains transfixed in deep samadhi, until He again emanates the universe through His Cosmic Dance.3) Sadashiva tattva: the power of revealing grace. In this realm the energies of knowledge and action are in perfect equilibrium. This is the realm of the anandamaya kosha. 4) Ishvara tattva: the energy of concealment, concealing grace. The energy of action prevails over that of knowledge in order to arouse cosmic activity in its subtle form. 5)shuddhavidya tattva: pure knowledge, dharma. This is a level of manifestation in which the energy of action is in abeyance and the energy of knowledge prevails. Shuddhavidya tattva includes Siva's other three powers or aspects: Rudra (destruction), Vishnu (preservation) and Brahma (creation) - all of whom are descending evolutes from Him.

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited June 25, 2009).]

#783 - April 21, 2009 01:48 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang

Here are some verses on Tayumanavar, and it needs no interpretation.

0091 - (10.3)
The Vedas, the Agamas, the Epics
And all the rest of scriptures
Expound in elaboration
The path of Advaita-Dvaita.
The inexplicable Dvaita knowledge
Is the knowledge that
Leads to Advaita knowledge.

This acceptable, indeed, to inference,
Experience and Revelation,
This is the accord of both the schools.

And so, enough for me
Is chariya, kriya and the rest.
What I conceive I am,
I become that.

And so, if I conceive Thee as ''I''
I will reach the path of Advaita.
My Father, whatever I conceive Thou as,
Thou as that appear
And confer Thine Grace.
Is there any lapse in that?

Oh! Thou the Pervasive Being
That is Life of life
Of this world and next!

0167 - (15.3)
In the final dissolution
All that was visible vanished
And what resulted was mukti
Of unblemishless bliss.
And so the functions of creation and preservation
Along with maya ceased to exist.
But who was it that stood
With the garland of radiant eyed white skulls
Stretching along His hands and feet?

0442 - (27.43)
Oh, Heavenly Being of Bliss!
Bless me that I merge in Thee
That is beyond the vision of human knowledge
And of revealed scriptures.
Sure it is that I realized
Thou and the Sakti art
Mother, father, kith and Guru
And the Being Primal.

(The 'merger' is of unspeakable Oneness.)

0651 - (43.18)
Thou art the Lamp in the House of Vedanta
Which the holy beings of bodhanta
Hail in victory resounding,
Oh Para Param!

1095 - (45.2.4)
When is the day to be
That I receive the blessings of
Meikanda Natha (l)
Of the pure Advaita (Saiva Siddhanta) Philosophy,
Which false seers never saw?

(I see that former pluralists are beginning to describe themselves as suddha advaitins! That is one big leap. Gone is pluralism!!! After some noise, in less than 30 years it disappeared. )

1256 - (45.13.2)
When is the day to be
That I merge in Grace
Of the Advaita import
Of the song: "Artavarkat-karta Sivan Am" (1)

1273 - (45.14.5)
When is the day to be
That I know of merging in the Lord
As the wind that mergeth in the sky.

1276 - (45.14.8)
When is the day to be
That I merge in the Divine Flame I saw,
And become purified (traceless)
As camphor before lighted fire.

(As camphor leaves no trace. Tirumantiram.)

1283 - (45.14.15)
When is the day to be
That I reach the State of co-equal Union
When there is neither one nor two,
And there is both one and two.

(This co-union is the unspeakable Oneness.)

1288 - (45.14.20)
When is the day to be
That I become "That"
Transcending the States of
Knower, Known and Knowledge?

(Knower, known and knowledge is a state of realisation where duality and close proximity to the Lord exists. Beyond that realisation is another; transcending that is the state of merger or sayujyam. Tayumanavar is talking of the unspeakable that.)

1296 - (45.14.28)
When is the day to be
That I become one
With difference none
In the Lord of Knowledge Supreme,
Even as I was until now
One entire in Egoity.

1304 - (45.15.8)
When is the day to be
That I realize:
"The three worlds
And all the rest of Universe
Are but the pervasive Siva,
Who is Truth-Bliss-Knowledge"

1409 - (52.2)
The conclusions of Rig and other Vedas,
The heart of Sivagama and allied scriptures
Are but the divine hand-gestures of Cin Mudra;
In them who realized this but once in their heart
Will the Waters of Bliss forever well up.

(Cinmudra is the language of the unspeakable Oneness.)

1429 - (54.14)
"Think not 'I' and 'Thou' as Two;
Stand as One in union inextricable"
All these, He said in One Word;
But how shall I describe the felicity
That was of that Word born?

(Lord Siva commands not to think or speak of 'two'. Yet dualists routinely never listen to that commad but claim to be scholars.)

#784 - April 21, 2009 05:19 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang

Mudras is a sort of sign language, used to communicate whole concepts that cannot otherwise be expressed in words. It is for this reason mudras were conceived and invented. It is used in art, dance, yoga, martial arts and iconography. When all else fails, where there is some intellectual retardation that cannot be overcome with intensive use of sanskrit, tamil, english, font sizes and colors, then we may switch to mudras.

"Seal." Esoteric hand gestures which express specific energies or powers. Usually accompanied by precise visualizations, mudras are a vital element of ritual worship (puja), dance and yoga. Among the best-known mudras are: 1) abhaya mudra (gesture of "fear not"), in which the fingers are extended, palm facing forward; 2) anjali mudra (gesture of reverence); 3) jnana mudra (also known as chin mudra and yoga mudra), in which the thumb and index finger touch, forming a circle, with the other fingers extended; 4) dhyana mudra (seal of meditation), in which the two hands are open and relaxed with the palms up, resting on the folded legs, the right hand atop the left with the tips of the thumbs gently touching.

abhaya mudra - The hand gesture common in Hindu icons, betokening "fear not," in which the fingers of the right hand are raised and the palm faces forward.

anjali mudra - "Reverence gesture." Also called pranamanjali. A gesture of respect and greeting, in which the two palms are held gently together and slightly cupped. Often accompanied by the verbal salutation "namaskara," meaning "reverent salutation." The anjali mudra has various forms, e.g., near the chest in greeting equals, at eye level in greeting one's guru, and above the head in salutation to God. One form is with the open hands held side by side, as if by a beggar to receive food, or a worshiper beseeching God's grace in the temple.

mrigimudra - "Deer gesture."The right hand is held in the shape of the profile of a deer'shead: the thumb, second finger and third finger touching to formthe upper jaw, and the first and fourth fingers kept straight,forming the ears. During puja a flower is held in this mudra (in the "deer's mouth," facing... Click for more.

varada mudra - "Boon-giving gesture." A hand pose shown bythe Gods or a guru, in which the palm hangs loose at thewrist, facing the benefactor, with the fingers pointing downward, usually outstretched.

Cinmudra - shows the eternal unity or the Suddha-Advaita-Bhava of Soul and God. The Cin-mudra of the Primal Guru Dakshinamurthi indicates the unity of Pasu with Pati getting rid of the taints - Pasam in Sanskrit - vividly. The thumb represents Linga or Siva in the heart. The forefinger is the soul bound by (Mummalam in Tamil) mental impurities. Cinmudra signifies that communion of the soul with the Absolute, as One, in an unbroken loop. This communion of god and soul, tat and tvam, is unspeakable, cannot be expressed in language, therefore it is represented by the cinmudra, and understood intuitively in the Silence.

We use mudras all the time in daily life to convey sentiments and intentions, like the middle finger. I don't know what mudra is that, but it usually means the discussion is over and it's time to exchange fists.

Some Mudras

Dance Mudras

Lookout for the interesting sivalinga mudra at 4.30.

One really cannot understand and appreciate dance forms and iconography if one does not know about mudras. This is the reason that traditional Indian dances are not appreciated by the modern youth. They do not comprehend the language. The other factor is the absence of shringara mudras and movements. Shringara is the sensual and the erotic, without which the dance is 'empty'. They have to bring back the shingara element into which was excluded since 1930 by the puritan brahminists. Of course one cannot use the shringara with children and grandmothers around.


#785 - May 07, 2009 02:45 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Defining Metaphysical Philosophies

We need to know the definitions and the basis of naming a philosophy.

Firstly, a philosophy is described on the basis of its base texts; it is called vedanta if it is based on the upanishads, it is called siddhanta if it is based on the agamas, or anekatmavada if based on the jain agamas.

Next is described the relationship of god and soul; whether it is one (monism/ekam) or two (dualism/dvaita) or not two (advaita). There is NO third relationship between two entities. There can be no pluralism!

So first we state the relationship, then the text - such as Advaita Vedanta, of Dvaita Vedanta, or Advaita Siddhanta, or Dvaita Siddhanta, etc. There is NO Pluralistic Vedanta, or Siddhanta - [/b]it is absurdity![/b]

For the last thirty years many tamil scholars have been making a fool of themselves, embarrassingly showing their lack of understandings of definitions by describing siddhanta as pluralism. Fortunately we brought it to an end two years ago.

Nearly everyone now agrees that siddhanta should be named as Suddhaadvaita Siddhanta. This is fine. But whether it is suddha advaita or just plain advaita without a prefix, or with a suffix - it is still advaita! There is no need for hair splitting!

And as I have shown in over a hundred verses, Tirumular, Tayumanavar, Meykandar and Yogaswami are advaitists par excellence! No one, not even Shankara have been so clearly and thrustingly advaitic! Shankara introduced the concept of maya in his advaita. Whereas these saints did not even use the concept of maya to camoflauge their advaita. Whether there is maya or not, there exists an advaitic relationship all along, which the soul is urged to realise, and to [/b]Become That Siva![/b]


#786 - May 07, 2009 02:52 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Physics, Metaphysics & Psychology

There is physics, and there is metaphysics.

Physics deals with all the laws that governs matter. Metaphysics deals with god
and souls - none of which can be empirically proved. It is non falsifiable. It
has to be realised in an experience, and that experienced is something that can never be shared.

That which deals with the mind, and vis-a-vis the human being in society is
called psychology. It is a (controversial) subjective science. Some (still) say
it is a pseudo science.

In metaphysics we recognise yet another sense faculty, a sixth sense - the third eye, which
manifests itself as 'intuition'. This has been widely documented over ages. We
call these documentations as 'scriptures' or shastras, the first being the
vedas. (Never mind that these scriptures has been loaded and interspaced with
hocus pocus, superstition and mumbo jumbo.)

A prerequisite (to metaphyical discussions) is that we recognise and accept this
'other' sixth faculty of sense perception which we call the third eye.

The third eye (superconscious knowing) is NOT the mind. It is beyond the mind
and we call it the (all pervading) superconscious mind. To the awakened soul the
superconscious mind floods the conscious and subconscious mind; such flooding
(which may last a nanosecond, or days) is termed as a spiritual experience,
trance or samadhi. This indescribable experience has been variously called Sat,
Chit, Ananda, or a combination of all three.


#787 - May 13, 2009 01:25 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Types of Mukti

Mukti is the word for liberation found in Tamil philosophical texts. Saiva Siddhanta explains four stages of muktii. They are named as Pathamukti, aparamukti, paramukti and jivanmukti. The experiences gained in these stages are also of four kinds. These experiential states are saalokam, saameepam, saarupam and saayujyam.

Saalokam is the liberated state of the souls residing in the ‘world’ (loka) of Lord Siva and experiencing the enjoyment there. The souls in this state attained divinity by staying in the chariya path and performing their spiritual sadhanas. (Chariya, kiriya, yoga and jnana are four spiritual paths prescribed in Saiva religion).

Saameepam is the state of the souls which, in addition to the above experience, enjoy being in the proximity (sameepaththil iruththal) of Lord Siva. The souls in this state attained divinity by staying in the kriya path and performing their spiritual sadhanas.

Saarupam is the state of the souls which obtain a form of Lord Siva in their liberated state, in a soul body in the image and likeness of God Siva, identical to Him with powers to create, preserve and destroy. The souls in this state attained divinity by staying in the yoga path and performing their spiritual sadhanas.

Saayujyam is the state of merging into Lord Siva.

In the saaloka, saamepa and svaroopa stages the soul enjoys close proximity with Lord Siva in the Sivaloka, and at His feet. And in the sayujyam state, the ultimate, there is oneness! Tirumular declares that the goal of the saiva is sayujyam and NOT the other states of mukti, not any dvaita state.

What this means is the defeat of any dualistic theories, of just being close to Lord Siva at His feet. That is not the saiva goal. The saiva goal is merger with Siva, to Become Siva, after the svaroopa state. In the svaroopa state the soul is identical with Siva - same rupa, which is still not good enough for the saiva. Tirumular says, after that is sayujyam - become one, and *that* is the goal of the saiva siddhantin!

With mukti comes Existential Understanding in Deep Silence (Irunta Arivu). (A woman understands motherhood by being a mother. This is existential understanding.) The souls in saaloka, saamepa and saarupa and those jivanmuktas on earth already enjoy existential understanding of Siva, as the nature of the souls and Siva is the same, and there is no more malam blocking full enjoyment by the soul.

Let me reproduce Meykandar's words regarding knower, known and knowledge (existential understanding), that 'only an object outside you' can be known or rather experienced as existential knowledge.

"All the organs of knowledge are non-real; therefore none knows the One. And thou, the knower, cannot know (Him). If thou knewest Him, He would be (an object) other than thou. He who has seen the Truth knows (Him) by Himself [mine: existential understanding] So he does not know the Peerless One as (an object) other than himself."

He further states, "..It is not enough for the soul to know God; because even when it knows Him there is the illusory thought, `I know Him'. The soul, to destroy this illusion of `I' and `mine', must not only know Him but be one with Him."

What he means is having an existential understanding of Siva simply confirms the duality of god and soul, and is not enough. There is a further stage! We have to go further and destroy the "I" and "mine" in saayujyam, and become Siva. At this state is is no longer knower and known. There is only One.

Those are Meykandar's words. Existential knowlege is not enough, not the ultimate state of oneness with Siva, not the ultimate siddanta. There is yet another higher state of attainment which we call saayujyam where there is no more I and Mine.

For the first three states of mukti the soul still retains its individuality. However this distinctions in the three states of mukti lasts only till mahapralaya, as Arulnandi says, when the Agent of Dissolution absorbs everything into Him. For time and space ceases to exist at mahapralaya. Where there is no space, there can be no separateness and distinctions. For distinctions and separateness requires space.


All the three worlds, including the sivaloka and the gods, exists within the axis of space-time. Nothing exists outside of the three-dimensional time-space; not gods, not souls, not worlds.

At mahapralaya, space-time and forms all collapses back into the Void or Parasiva. Sadasiva is the amorphous formless form, sat-asat, the source of All. Sadasiva too collapses back into the Parasiva, into the Void. Mind exists within space-time, else it cannot function without the axis of space-time.

Parasiva transcends space, time and form, outside the confines of space-time. In Parasiva there is no mind, so no description is possible.

Time and space begins when creation starts. When we say 'creation', we mean the absolute beginning point of space-time! When we say eternal, or eternity, we are talking of within the flow of time, within the confines of space-time, within the confines of creation. So we say souls are eternal, the pasam is eternal, because it is for all time! But this is only true within the constraints of space-time! It is not true after mahapralaya, where there is no space-time. Without time, nothing is eternal. Without space nothing is separate, and there can be no duality. The question does not arise. And so, the question of creation cannot arise. Souls and the world and the mind only begins to exist when space-time unfolds, when creation starts. Before this absolute commencement point of the start of space-time or creation, gods, souls and the worlds DO NOT EXIST.

Part of the reason for the misunderstanding is because people do not understand what is pati, pasu and pasam. Most think these words were chosen because they all start with P and they rhyme. On the contrary the words were carefully chosen by Tirumular in his siddhanta.

Pati means the Supreme personal Lord Mahesvara, who is the Ruler. It does not mean parasiva who transcendents time, space and form, and it does not mean sadasiva which is the immanent formless form satchitananda. For Isvara rules, and that is within space-time.

Pasu means the fettered soul. It is already in bondage by anava. Pasu does not mean the unfettered jiva. Pasupati means the Lord of the Bonded Souls. The point is, Pasupati is not Lord of jivas, for jiva is siva. A Lord can only rule over subjects, not the unfettered soul who is himself a god.

Pasam are the malams - anava, karma and maya.

When we say pasus and pasam is always existing and eternal, we mean that they existed from the start of space-time. That means eternal. It cannot mean that they existed before the start of time, for that is an oxymoron and illogic. And in the same logic when we say pasus and pasam are uncreated, we mean that they existed in the Void, in Parasiva, before the point of creation and the flow of time. Before the absolute commencement of space-time, everything is uncreated! Of course! How obvious! But in the Parasiva no separateness or distinction is possible, for all have collapsed and crushed into 'no space-no time'.

Making a statement that souls are eternal and uncreated in the same sentence is a misnomer and leads to wrong understanding. This is the source of the chaos in the siddhanta world. Souls are only eternal within space-time, and souls are only uncreated or beginningless outside of space-time. But then, outside of space-time, before the absolute point of creation, one wouldn't call them pasus or pasam, would they? For, outside of space-time, nothing is there!

Who wants to go to sivaloka? Every Tom, Dick and Harry, every dog, every christian and muslim - by feeding the poor and sweeping the temples goes to sivaloka and be in the company of Lord Siva, like the devas, ganas, bhutas and rudras are doing. That is not the saiva's goal! The saiva can achieve that right here on earth while living, enjoying Siva's company day and night and remain absorbed in the flow of satchitananda.

The saiva's goal is also not to become identical to Siva, with a golden soul body in the image and likeness (svaroopam) of Siva, with powers to create, preserve and destroy just like Tirumular had while he was still living on earth as a jivanmukta. No, that is not the saiva's goal, to be a god! There are enough gods, all clamouring for attention down here on earth. There must be something even better, a higher goal, than living in the company of clamouring gods.

Then, what can be better than that? Isn't it even better to Become Siva Himself? Isn't that the ultimate one can strive for? Is there any better siddhanta than that? *That* is the siddhanta we are talking about, and *that* is the highest siddhanta that Tirumular urged us to strive for. Not to be with Siva in close proximity, not to look exactly like Siva, not be a Siva look-alike, a Siva clone, but to Become Siva. No clones for us!

When we talk of siddhanta, we are talking about *that*. If we are not talking about *that*, then we are not talking about siddhanta. If one thinks the goal is to be one with Siva yet maintaining even a degree of difference, then that is not siddhanta, that is not we are talking about. That would be something else, some other philosophy, some other lesser siddhanta. Saivas are not concerned about those, but the highest siddhanta envisioned by Tirumular.

The vedantins say they are already brahman. They are not striving for anything. How can you strive for something that you already are? So they are not striving. They are contended. They are just sitting there talking aloud to themselves, psycho-ing themselves, that all this is a fake, a joke, a mere illusion, that they are already brahman, and that sooner or later all this mirage would fade, like the mist before the sun. Why should brahman strive? They are not striving for anything except cranking their minds to see through the fog, the facade of mind-shapes. They call this mind cranking as jnana yoga - the path of jnana. All you have to do is don't look at women, don't do anything, just lookout for some dalit crossing your path!


Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon: Search Results

1 salokya mfn. = %{-loka} (with gen.) MBh.
2 sAlokya n. (fr. %{sa-loka}) the being in the same sphere or world , residence in the same heaven with (instr. with %{saha} , or gen. , or comp. ; this is one of the four stages of beatitude)[b] MBh. Hariv. Pur. &c.

1 [b]sarUpa
(%{sa4-}) mfn. having the same shape or form , uniform , similar , like , resembling (gen. or comp.) RV. &c. &c. ; having the same sound identical in sñsound , consonant , Kavya7d. ; having shape or form , embodied VP. ; shapely formed , beautiful , handsome (prob.also w.r. for %{su-r-}) Pan5cavBr. Ka1v. ; m. a partic. mythical being Suparn2. ; (%{A}) f. N. of the wife of Bhu1ta and mother of innumerible Rudras BhP. ; (%{-pa}) %{-kRt} mfn. producing the same form or colour AV. ; (%{-paM}) %{-ka4raNa} mf(%{I})n. id. ib. ; %{-tA} f. %{-tva} n. identity of form , likeness , resemblance to (comp.) AitBr. MBh. Ka1m. &c. ; assimilation to the deity (one of the four stages in the progress towards final emancipation) RTL. &c. ; %{-vatsA} f. a cow with a calf of the same colour Gr2S3rS. ; %{-po7pamA} v.l. for %{samAna-rUp-} Ka1vya7d.

1 sayujya mfn. (fr. prec.) closely united with MW. ; %{tA} f. intimate union or junction ib.
2 sAyujya n. (fr. %{sa-yuj}) intimate union , communion with (gen. loc. instr. , or comp.) ; identification , absorption (into the divine Essence ; this is one of the four grades or states of Mukti cf. %{sAlokya} RTL.41) Ka1t2h. Br. MBh. &c. ; likeness , similarity W.

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited June 26, 2009).]

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited June 26, 2009).]

#788 - May 30, 2009 03:34 PM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Psychoanalysis : Freud and Appar-3

Temple and Existential Psychiatry


Before we pass over we have also to draw out the implications of the Psychoanalysis of Appar for Psychiatry where we take psychiatry as the APPLICATION of psychoanalytic UNDERSTANDING of the mind for solving mental diseases, restoring normality among the abnormal and so forth. Here we note a difference in focus between the Psychiatry of Appar and that of Freud.

Appar is concerned with the so-called normal people with all the social and communication skills in tact, like himself for example. But metaphysically viewed even such people are diseased for they suffer what is called piRavip piNi, the disease of being born again and again into the world and hence continuously failing in Moksa. The average individual, even when normal by the average social norms, is DISEASED when looked at metaphysically and against the True Meaning of Existence i.e. attaining Moksa and escaping from the cycle of births and deaths. When the Pharaohs built enormous pyramids to preserve their body, there is this disease for instead of forgetting the bodily existence, it is cherished as eternal. Desiring endless progeny to perpetuate self and with that enjoy a kind of immortality is also part of this disease.

When a vain man sets himself up as the Jagadacariya or Messiah for redeeming the whole of mankind, making people forget God, there is also this disease. In lesser cases whenever a person sets himself up as one who should be worshipped extolled submitted to without being questioned and so forth, we have this disease afflicting the soul and hence something very widespread indeed. Each one of us nurture as part of our aims this rising up above the average and become a god-like figure, loved admired and submitted to by all.

Let us call the psychiatry that cures this disease- the PiRavip PiNi- Existential Psychiatry, notion of psychiatry more inclusive than that of restoring a person to normality. Existential Psychiatry includes this (as dealt by the Siddhas) as well as the so-called normal people but who are BLIND to their great possibilities for GROWTH as a person and who can raise himself to a condition of being blessed with Moksa.

Let us note immediately that not only this notion of “existence itself is a disease” is NOT available either in Freud or Jung, it is also NOT available at all as a fabric of Western Thinking as a whole (as far as I can see). Thus Existential Psychiatry as such is a discipline that is absent not only in the whole of Western Psychiatry but also the whole of Western culture. They are still IGNORANT of the notion of PiRavip PiNi, that this worldly existence they cherish so much and where growth is measured in terms of annual average monetary income of an individual and where social and political success is also measured in terms of the financial reserves hoarded up in the treasury, this disease is active even though as the Unconscious. There are major wars being fought, terrorism of all kinds where huge ****nal and weapons of advanced technologies are made useless, escapism in terms of drug addictions and so forth, pointing out the reality of this disease. The cure to all these is available in noting the possibility that all of us can become what Appar calls ‘aRRu aruL peRRu NinRaar”, or what is the same and as said in KuRaL, “PaRRuka paRRu aRRaan paRRu”, an ideal that would establish us in existential sanity whereby we will not be seeking become the Pharaoh, Messiah, Jagadguru and so forth but rather a humble adiyar who would worship BEING and seek His Grace and nothing else. In Existential Psychiatry of Appar what we have is the transmutation of sexual desires, the primordial paRRu or bondage into Universal Love that sees no difference at all among all creatures, the attuviti anbu of Meykandar through destroying alienation (anniyam) from whatever.

Now since the average doctor or professor of Western Psychiatry is IGNORANT of his own diseased nature in this sense, it becomes clear that he is unfit to become the Existential Psychiatrist. The one supremely ignorant of his own condition and blind to the ideal possibility inherent to all and which is as above where sexuality is transmuted into Universal and non-alienating Love, cannot become one who can cure the PiRavip PiNi as such.

This raises the question as to who can in fact be the Existential Psychiatrist. The Hindus would immediately jump to the conclusion that the great Gurus are the only people who can be the authentic Existential Psychiatrists. And the Brahmins would almost unfailingly push Sankara as the Supreme Jagadacariya as they are never tired of doing. But noting that there can be corruptions even in this institution where most of the gurus are in fact subtly tyrannical where they want to rule the multitudes as if a Spiritual King, the God on Earth and in Flesh they cannot in fact be ones who can cure the PiRavip PiNi as they themselves are NOT free of it. Worst is Sankara as he is ignorant of the world and the sexuality that reigns supreme in the psychodynamics of the average man.

Thus we are to the notion that it is only a TEMPLE and the gods themselves who can be the existential psychiatrist and NOT any mortal man. The temples are the locality where the gods in the depths are somehow visibly present and hence the invisible are made somewhat VISIBLE in the Temple though the various representation of icons and where the RITUALS are such that such beings in the depths are made surface to the fore and be ACTIVELY PRESENT in the foreground of consciousness and hence serving as the eyes of the person. When the SEEING becomes ordained by the deities, it becomes possible to see or at least intuit one’s own IDEAL possibility and hence live an authentic life, a life in the direction of becoming that ideal, psychodynamics in the direction of Moksa.

This is the substance of the following verse of Appar.

pooz iLaG kaNNiyinaanaip puuntukiLoodum paadi

vaaziyam pooRriyenRu eeththi vadaamiddu aadaa varuveen

aazi valavan ninRu eettum AiyaaRu vawthakinRa pootu

koozi pedaiyoduG kuudik kuLirntu varavana kaNdeen

kaNdeen avar titupaatam kaNdaRiyaatana kandeen

I was coming singing the praise of Civa who as Candrasekaran wears the divided Moon with Uma of flower-silk attire, saying long Live! Praise be to you ! and so forth and dancing away moving in circles. Then as I neared the AiyaaRu where stands Vishnu with the Disc on His right hand and praising Siva, I saw on the way, the cockerels coming with the hen having cooled themselves in sexual union. At that point I saw with my mental eyes, the Divine Feet of Siva (where he creates the male and females of all species with agitating the Natam and Bindu). Thus I saw what are impossible to witness with the fleshy eyes alone.

In noting this we also understand why right from at least the Sumerian times the TEMPLE has played such a central role in Agamism or Tantrism. Tantrism is a culture of Existential Psychiatry and hence a scientifically constituted culture where there is recognition that all individuals are capable of Moksa and that it is BEING who can confer this and NO other. We can see that scriptures and gurus are only intermediaries but not absolutely authoritative for none of them can offer Moksa. The temple can in a way do this for in its architecture the idea of deepening and widening the VISIONS of the individuals is incorporated and by the time a person reaches the Sanctum Sanctorum (and always past the Pali Peedam, the sacrificial post), he is led to witness that which is not normally seen, so that he would sing like Appar here “ KaNdariyaatana KaNdeeN’: Oh, I can see now what are normally not possible. Now we can understand why Appar declares:

6: 95-5.

tirukooyil illaata tirvil uurum

tiruveNNiiRu aNiyaata tirvil uurum

parkkoodu pattimaiyaaR paadaa vuurum

paaGkinoodu palataLikaL illaa vuurum

viruppoodu veNcaGkam uutaa vuurum

vitaanamum veNkodiyum illaa vuurum

aruppoodu malarpaRittiddu uNNaa uurum

avaiyelaam uurallaa adavi kaadee

The cities that do not have temples with well consecrated icons and hence without the divine Grace; cities that do not have people wearing the Sacred Ash indicating the desire to be Pure in heart and soul; the cities where there are people who are not humble and with genuine Love for BEING do not sing the hymns that melt the heart; the cities where in every street corner there are no simple shrines for people to worship the deities readily; the cities where there are no spiritual individuals who would counsel and with that relieve the confusions of people around; the cities where there are no festivals celebrated with banners and flags raised to create an atmosphere of mirth and joy; the cities where there people who do not worship the icons with fresh flowers before they eat anything at all - all these cities are NOT genuine cities but simply woods with thick wild growths.

The temple, the abode of the Gods in the Sanctum Sanctorum of which resides a DeepStructure of BEING is in fact an institution of Existential Psychiatry and I believe that when the Western Psychiatry grows and develops it will also become Existential Psychiatry of Appar and so forth and hence the whole of Western culture a Temple Culture i.e. Tantric in essence


The deity of the temple is the Ultimate Psychiatrist! And the temple is a place
one goes to unload the heavy subconscious of its accumulation of experiences
over the week. It is only in the temple where we can freely 'speak' all our
hidden thoughts without fear, and confront our subconscious and its
machinations. It is this that gives respite and re-enlivens our conscience.

And the temple festivals are an important part of the 'awakening' process,
including the yearly chariot procession. I have found that to properly enjoy a
temple festival one has to be early to the temple, way before the start of the
festivals, at least two hours before, so that one is fully prepared 'to receive'
the temple vibrations.

I have found that most people who do not properly enjoy and appreciate these
temple festivals are those who casually walk in late or mid way through the
rituals, or just there to mark attendance out of obligation or show their face
to friends and relatives. If this is the case, they might as well not attend at
all. One has to be there at least two hours before the start of festival, or
half hour before the start of daily pujas.

Among the temple festivals that I found most moving and bursting forth the
conscience was the TiruKalyaanam (holy Matrimony) of Lord Ganapati to Siddhi and Buddhi. It was a
fantastic reenaction lasting six hours. If this festival is held in your area,
it is not to be missed for anything in the world!


#789 - June 02, 2009 01:52 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
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The Existentialism of Appar

If existentialism means a philosophy that accords an important place for feelings and emotions along with or over and above conceptual knowledge then the Philosophy of Appar in this Patikam is Existentialism of an important kind. It is not an accident that BEING is captured not in terms of attributes or guNas or structural forms and so forth but rather in terms of LOVE - Father Mother and so forth. What is described is BEING, no doubt about it but not simply the Brahman, Pure Radiance of a kind, SaguNa NirguNa and so forth. Such Vedantic descriptions are overlooked and BEING maintained as the emotionally appropriated Father Mother and so forth and this obviously to give prominence to LOVE that exists between people as such.

Appar wants to SEE the whole universe in terms of LOVE and therefore something existentially MEANINGFUL just as the Family is the most meaningful social nexus for anybody. In fact we can see Appar begins with Family Man and then universalizing it articulates the notion of World Family Man and where he SEES BEING as Father Mother and so forth. What this way of progressing in individual development is that of culturing FEELINGS so that LOVE comes to dominate existence and because of which there is no alienating, discriminating people on the basis of birth profession sex nationality and so forth. All such man made barriers break down - the whole world becomes one’s little city, the whole of humanity becomes one community and all people become brethren, the cuRRam.

It can be seen that this is a frontal attack on VarNasrama Dharma which took a firm hold in the Tamil country at that time where we gather, from MaNimekalai, that even cemeteries were divided along caste lines.

appan nii ammai nii aiyanum nii

anbudaiya maamanum maamiyum nii

oppudaiya maatarum oNporuLum nii

orukulamum cuRRamum oor uurum nii

tuyppanavum uyppanavum tooRuvaay nii

tunaiyaay en nenjcanj tuRappippaay nii

ippon nii immaNi nii immuttu nii

iRaivan nii eeRuurnta celvan niiyee!

O BEING who is above any definite shape of your own! It is for my sake that you have assumed the shape of a Father who controls sternly, a Mother who pours love no matter how evil I am and the great Guru who illuminates me on metaphysical truths! You also become the in-laws who allow me to have a spouse to enable me to enjoy sexual bliss and domestic happiness. You also become the women of agreeable temper and the economic wealth that allows a happy domestic life. Above all these you become the divine power that makes me see the whole of mankind as One with all the people as kith and kin and with that the whole wide world as my own city. Now you also become the Power that configures the experiences of higher tastes that serve to lift up myself in spiritual development. And when the time comes you assume all these forms and saturating my heart to the full, also enable me to disengage myself from the mundane. You are really all the precious stones gold pearls and so forth. Thus you are the Great God and also really the one who rides the Bull of all virility.

The most important phrase here is “oru kulamum cuRRamum oor uuRum nii’ and which echoes ‘Yaatum uuree yaavarunG keeLir ‘’ (the whole world is my city and all people are my brethren) of KaNiyan puuGkunRanar (c. 2nd cent. BC) and that of Tirumular “ OnRee kulamum Oruvaneeet teevanum “ (all people are of one community and Being is the same for all) and which expresses the SOCIAL UNIVERSALISM of Saivism proper that cuts across the VarNasrama Dharma and such other caste sentiments that is fostered even by modern Saivites. It is interesting that Appar extols this philosophy as part of EXISTENTIALISM and not simply the arid intellectual and logical epistemological philosophies. Such a philosophy in which one relates to others in society in loving terms is a matter of FEEINGS and hence something that belongs to aesthetics and ethics. Unless a person develops in feelings and emotions such a way of relating oneself with others will not be realized.

But how does one get cultured along these lines and what is the role of BEING in such a culture?

First of all Appar notes that a person must be caught in filial relationships of various kinds so that he respects and honors a father so that there is an inner check against going the wrong way. And further there must be Mother figure to love and cherish no matter what heinous a crime one commits. And following these there must a Guru figure, a sympathetic philosopher so that counseling in the form of illuminating the individual with respect to basic truths is always at hand. BEING becomes all these existential figures to cultivate the bestial mind and which is NATURALLY so because of being infected with the Dark Killing Force and its various phenomenal forms.

But these kinds of relationships are in a way secondary compared to the sexual needs of all and which incorporates within itself the instinct to self propagate. A person must be given a sexual partner to gratify such needs and in connection with this BEING becomes the loving in-laws who allow marriage either with their son or daughter and with that enjoy the expression of these instinctual pressures deep within. But here too there can be problems if the spouse is disagreeable and there is economic poverty. So BEING becomes, at least for the deserving one, an agreeable spouse and sufficient wealth to cater for the practical needs.

It is only with such blessings that a person can grow in that a mental framework where the model of loving family gets transported to the whole of world and hence appropriating it as one’s own FAMILY. If the right sort of FAMILY LIFE is not enjoyed such a culturing will fail and with that there will NOT also be such a social philosophy of universal brotherhood and so forth.

But as an intermediate culturing element there must be the tasting of the higher aesthetical - uyppikkum tuyppu - the aesthetic experiences that are UPLIFTING, the divine arts and so forth which dulls the ego and with that catapult the self into higher metaphysical grounds. It is the wealth of metaphysical insights gained by such spiritual sojourn that become the gold pearls precious stones and so forth.

Only now there comes to be TuRRappu and which means here not asceticism or sannyasam but freeing oneself from the phenomenal but only because BEING fills fully all these existential needs. When the self is fully possessed by BEING, there is natural saturation of the spirit and because of which INTEREST in phenomenal matters cease to be powerful motivating forces. The various instinctual pressures are redirected into the self relating itself to BEING and with that towards a severance towards the physical but indulgence with the metaphysical.

Such a person is the Bakta, the one who LOVES BEING and maintains himself in various kinds of loving relationships with BEING and with that lead a spiritual life wholly dominated by LOVE unto all.


#790 - June 13, 2009 04:30 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Philosophy of Temple City - Appar

The most unifying theme of Agamic Culture is that of the centrality of Temple in every city and residential locality, a fact we notice in Sumeria and Indus in ancient times and since then all over India and the world where Hinduism has planted itself. Each time a temple is erected, Agamic Hinduism comes alive making that locality itself sacred, bringing along with the celestial powers to guide them along

We have Kes Temple Hymn of En Hudu Anna outlining the philosophy of temple where it is stated that it contributes to mental health of the people and through that even for economic prosperity. It allows or helps people become great, the ur-sag (> caanRoor) who would reach the heavens with the help of the temple.

In this very useful verse, Appar returns to this theme but more in the psychiatric vein. He outlines a Philosophy of Temple city where there will be huge temples with many festivals but also little shrines everywhere so that all people have READY access to the divine forces.

One puzzling element is the repeated emphasize of Appar worship with flowers that he also mentions and as usual just before having meals. It appears this linkage between flower worship and having meals may be a recommendations of Vegetarian Food, as not the clean food ( Cutta Pooasnam) but also as that which overcomes animistic tendencies, the inclinations to sacrifice animals and as by way of worship.

This is either the birth or reinforcement of vegetarianism in the temples, the great one as opposed to the little ones, the temples for the little deities with the attendant magical practices and blood sacrifices. I tend to think it is resuscitation of an ancient practice for we have also Suruppak saying in his NeRi (c. 3000 BC) that such forms of evil will bring about undesirable consequences.

The metaphor of woods thick with luxuriant growth is also quite apt and it's a dream image. The luxuriant undergrowth represents uncontrollable desires and any society that creates a city without temples which serve as the culturing agents will turnout to be such a one.

tirukooyil illaata tirvil uurum

tiruveNNiiRu aNiyaata tirvil uurum

parkkoodu pattimaiyaaR paadaa vuurum

paaGkinoodu palataLikaL illaa vuurum

viruppoodu veNcaGkam uutaa vuurum

vitaanamum veNkodiyum illaa vuurum

aruppoodu malarpaRittiddu uNNaa uurum

avaiyelaam uurallaa adavi kaadee

The cities that do not have temples with well consecrated icons and hence without the divine Grace; cities that do not have people wearing the Sacred Ash indicating the desire to be Pure in heart and soul; the cities where there are people who are not humble and with genuine Love for BEING do not sing the hymns that melt the heart; the cities where in every street corner there are no simple shrines for people to worship the deities readily; the cities where there are no spiritual individuals who would counsel and with that relieve the confusions or people around; the cities where there are no festivals celebrated with banners and flags raised to create an atmosphere of mirth and joy; the cities where there people who do not worship the icons with fresh flowers before they eat anything at all - all these cities are NOT genuine cities but simply woods with thick wild growths.

Right from very ancient days Hinduism, the genuine shape of which is Agamism or Tantrism has been a temple-centered culture as we can see now from SumeroTamil literature such as that En Hudu Anna's Sirbiyam, Kes temple Hymn and so forth. This was the case in sangam epoch as well where we have a collection of hymns, the Paripaadal and which presuppose icons and worshipping such icons in temples. Appar is trying to recover this Agamic notion of temple-centered cities as the TRUE cities and all else simply woods with thick wild growths and hence not conducive at all for the culturing of man. This Dravidian notion of culture i.e. naakariikam is also temple centered as the word ˜nakar", the city also means a temple.

He also emphasizes the wearing of sacred ash as an important element of culture for it establishes the whole motivational dynamics of the people - that of becoming and being PURE at heart for the general well being of all. Where there is no such desire, people will cheat, will be corrupted, become selfish, mean, miserly, nasty an so forth and hence the whole society would lack in cohesion, lack in mutual trust and hence also cooperative activities, the ingredient of economic and all other kinds of successes.

For the psychological well being there must be not only the and magnificent temples but also simple shrines (taLikaL) at every street corners so that the vision of icons are readily available for all. Everyone should live with the presence of BEING in some icon form in the heart and mind of people so that they are free of depressions, melancholies and so forth and which are impediments towards energetic and persistent actions which alone will bring about success.

Now along with this, people should be humble and LOVING unto all to be cultured and truly spiritual so that the deities remain actively present in their body and mind guiding them effectively. For this people must sing HYMNS born out from genuine bakti and which would in turn channel the mind in that direction.

Now I am interpreting the blowing of conch as symbolic of Giitopateesam and hence philosophic counseling by people who are spiritually well developed. There must an abundance of such AntaNar or NaRpatattaar, the truly liberated (and not the charlatans and casteist Brahmins and so forth) who would counsel the distressed people without any ulterior motives (like extracting money, converting to one’s own religion, making them slaves unto one self etc.)

Now festivals have an important place in the social life of people. Such festivals bring out the Social Dimensions of Existence in addition to serving people to relate themselves with the deities and with that also enjoy a spiritual regeneration that would serve better to lead another spree of active economic and domestic life.

Now the habit of worshipping the deities with flowers before one begins to eat also has immense significance. The eating is the most fundamental earthly activity related to survival and the food has to be CLEAN, not stolen begged and so forth but rather a product of one's own toil. The offering of flowers indicate also the dominance of the spirit of LOVE and hence this habit may also mean that food on consumes must also be CLEAN, a product of LOVE as a whole.

Now all cities but which do not have the above features are said to be simply large woods with thick wild growths in a metaphorical way to indicate that they would FAIL to CULTURE people.


#791 - June 13, 2009 04:41 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Mantra Recital and Temple Worship - Appar

We have seen that Icon Thinking is the central element of Hindu worship and for which purpose temples are built and where even Appar recommends not only the building of huge temples but also little shrines so that everyone can enjoy the presence of the gods of their choice very readily. Now at the higher levels where Icon Thinking collapses, we have the birth of Mantra Recital and which for the Saivites is Na-ma-si-vaa-ya, the anjcezuttu. For the VaishNavas it remains 'namo naraayaNa and for the Muruka baktas Om SaravaNa Bava and so forth. But despite all these differences, all converge on Om, the Ongkaaram, the Primordial Logos and after which only Deep Silence is possible. The Siddhas have recommended even this practice of Deep Silence as an effective tool of psychotherapy for gaining mental purity and so forth.

But Appar also recommends the TALK of fire-hued Siva and the wearing of the sacred ash as associated practices to make the mantra recital effective. The mind must be FILLED with divine thoughts along with the desire to be absolutely PURE and the fact that Siva is the DESTROYER who would access even the deepest recesses of the mind and singe to ashes the evil karmic deposits there.

Life becomes meaningless and mechanical once a person abandons such motivations for existence - life is given to one to become PURE and getting rid off the deposits of the evil actions one has done, knowingly or unknowingly

Tirunaamam anjcezuttu ceppaaraakil

TiivaNNar tiRamorukaal peecaaraakil

Orukaalun tirukkooyil cuuzaaraakil

UNpatanmun malarpaRittiddu uNNaaraakil

ArunooykaL keda veNNiiRu aNiyaaraakil
ALiyaRRaar piRantavaaRu eetoovennil

PerunooykaL mika naliyap peyarttunj cettup
PiRappataRkee tozilaaki iRakkinRaaree

Those who do not chant the name Siva! Siva! and the mantra ˜Namasivaaya indicative of the Panjcakrittiyas of BEING both loudly and softly; those who do not reflect and speak often the DESTRUCTIVE powers of BEING by beholding the Fire-Colored Siva; those who championing Atheism and thus not believing in the existence of gods do not go the temples and worship the deities there; those who not do the arccanas with fresh blossoms before having meals; those who do not wear the Sacred Ash on their forehead in order to secure inner purity and with that drive away all the mental and physical diseases - all these people become unfit for the blessings of BEING. Now if asked why they are allowed to exist at all, know that it is for them to suffer with diseases difficult to cure and thereby immensely suffer by way of extirpating the evil karmas they have acquired and thus simply live to die and to be reborn to continue such miseries till they become pure.

Saivism is a very rational religion that focuses upon man becoming PURE psychologically so that he can lead a life in good mental and physical health and because he becomes fit thereby for the endless Grace of BEING. Living in the vicinity - the Cannitaanam of BEING - is the safest thing one can do to secure all the protection one needs to safeguard self and body from the attack of the evil forces that bring about diseases and death. Thus religious life is NOT simple a life of vain study of scriptures and verbal profession of dogmas and so forth. It is living with a will to be PURE at heart and with that mindful of every action of oneself so that they do not deviate from this inner purity.

Now Appar enumerates a number of overt behaviors that are indicative of such a disposition and all centering on temples and icon related thinking and rituals.

He mentions first of all the Mantra Recital - that of the name ˜Siva Siva and the root Siva-mantra Namasivaaya (just like Tirumular) which one can do anytime anywhere. The Mantra Recital follows after the collapse of Icon Thinking which is more concrete and which enable an individual to apprehend BEING as Panjca Krittyan Njana Muurtti and so forth.

Now central to BEING-as-Pancjakrittiyan, the Agent of the Five Fold Universal Praxis is that of Destruction and which is symbolized by the Fire-Colored Shape He assumes, Siva as Kaalagni Rudra. One must continually contemplate upon the presence of DESTRUCTION everywhere and hence Rudra for only then the associated praxis of regeneration sustenance and so forth will become intelligible. One must wage a war with evils within oneself and with Grace of Rudra-Siva destroy all these so that on can become PURE.

Now this is related to the symbolic act of wearing the Sacred Ash on the body and which symbolizes the act of destruction and as its limit becoming absolutely PURE. To become PURE in and out is the primordial MEANING of existence and must live as for this. And this brings in the need to avoid animal sacrifices and replace it worship with fresh blossoms. This way of worship indicates a transmutation of self so that it expresses LOVE unto all and not at all animosity and an Inner Purity within the aesthetics of Beautiful.

This inner PURITY and dominance of LOVE ensures the flow of Divine Grace, the aruL so that because of the divine presence all evil forces are naturally driven away making existence itself a joyous one lived with good mental and physical health.

Now the question arises: How is that there is also the gift of existence for those who do not live thus and thus become beyond the grace of BEING?

Such people are also given a lease of existence but not to enjoy the bliss of divine presence but rather SUFFER by way of extirpating the evil karmas already lodged in the deeper recesses of their Unconscious. They assail the person as incurable mental and physical diseases and bring about premature death and so forth by way of allowing the evil karmas express themselves out and with that also disappear.


#792 - June 19, 2009 10:00 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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The Indian Theogony: Brahma, Visnu and Siva , Sukumari Bhattacharji, Penguin Books India 2000; first published by Cambridge University Press 1970

(headings are added for clarity and emphasis: they are not part of the extracted text)

Rgvedic gods: Indo-European roots

THE Indo-European mind did not imagine the gods as very high, distant or different from men. Their god-making impulse stemmed from awe, wonder and admiration, an impulse unlike the other impulse of fear and misgivings which tends to create gods as very distant and formidable. All generalization is apt to be exaggerated and hence to some extent false, but if we try to probe into the fundamental attitude of the mythopoeic mind it will perhaps strike us that the Indo-European gods are friendly, living not very far from mortals, helpers in need, sharing faults and frailties with men. The Indo-European gods are not perfect; they are not they are not above anger, malice, boastfulness, wile and jealousy.

The Indian pantheon as found in the RV (RgVeda) is predominantly a legacy of the Indo-European pantheon. From the late tenth Mandala, through the YV (Yajur Veda) and AV (Atharva Veda) Samhita down to the Brahmanas we find new factors operating as formative influences in this pantheon. The gods change their character mainly through the impact of the non-Vedic population. Exogamy introduced non-Aryan wives who brought their own gods together with the mode of their worship into their husbands homes as Rachel brought Labans gods into Jacobs household. As neighbours, too, the non-Vedic people influenced the newcomers. The result of this ethnic and cultural intermixture is first noticed in the tenth Mandala and the process reaches a culmination in the Brahmanas. When under the Guptas Brahmanism again came into its own it was set up on a richer and more complex level.

Thus we can trace three strata in the Indian pantheon:

the Indo-European,
the Vedic-Brahmanical, and
the epic-Puranic.

The first stratum belongs to the history of the Indo-Europeans before their advent in India.

Vedic-Brahmanical myth-making

For the second phase, that is, the Vedic-Brahmanical, northern India modern Punjab and Uttar Pradesh was the centre of the Vedic Indians myth-making activities.

7th 6th centuries BCE

Between the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. heterodoxy flourished strongly in what is now south-eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The Brahmanical religion was introduced rather later in that region and consequently the population there was little affected by the earlier Aryan social, or religious systems.

Yaksas, Nagas and other local, chthonic deities were worshipped at sacred groves or chaityas (mounds), even after the Aryan religion had arrived there.

The social structure was different, administration and forms of government were also different; and opulent merchant class lived in comparative economic security, while the free peasants and artisans, constituting the bulk of the population, enjoyed a high standard of living. The old tribal structure was disintegrating, older administrative institutions were crumbling and a number of petty principalities had arisen in which something of the tribal political structure was retained in the republic type of administration. Confederacies became powerful and although, through Aryan infiltration, new modes of social or religious life were absorbed slowly but surely, this did not happen without considerably altering the character of the Vedic religion itself and largely casting it into an indigenous mould.

The development of organized state-machinery and the advance of material culture ran concurrently with the rapid spread of new religious and philosophical movements the Upanisadic upheaval, Buddhism, Jainism, Yoga, Samkhya and Vedanta. In the tremendous ferment of the succeeding ages the contribution of the new thought was largely incorporated into the emergent religion and remained fundamental to all subsequent religious thought in India.

The chief characteristics of this new thought were: a deep dissatisfaction with the existing state of affairs in the religious and philosophical world, an other-worldliness, a growing crystallization of the theory of rebirth and Karman (action), greater preoccupation with release from the chain of existence, increasing detachment and emphasis on non-violence and non-enjoyment.

Two centuries after Buddha

About two centuries after the Buddha there arose a cult which filled in the hiatus of the negative aspect of these doctrines viz. the Bhagavata cult. According to some, Krsna, its first teacher, later became the central divinity of the cult and ended up becoming an avatara (incarnation) of Visnu.

Epic-Puranic period (c. 200 BC AD 300)

In the next period (c. 200 BC AD 300), when religious thought was at its most active and when the later mythological sections of the epics and early Puranas were being composed and redacted vigorously and briskly, we notice the rise of other sects Saiva, Vaisnava (Narayaniya) and Saura.

This period is characterized by a greater accent on the doctrine of reincarnation, the concept of the impersonal Brahman and the personal soterial god, Isvara, the authority of the Smrtis (religious conventions) alongside the Srutis (Vedas), increasing stratification of caste and the four stages of life, the emergence of the triad (Brahman, Visnu and Siva), the reincarnation of the supreme being (avatara), different levels of spiritual ability (adhikara), rituals and image worship (puja), pilgrimages, shrines and temples and finally the slow but sure resurgence of the indigenous gods in different syncretistic shapes.

It was a period of spiritual turmoil and achieved an astonishing transformation in Indian mythology. .

Comparing the first two periods: Male gods versu goddesses

Another distinction exists between the relgions of these two periods (early Vedic and later-Vedic to Brahmanical). While in the first the worship of the male gods predominates, in the latter the goddesses, too, become powerful.

Vedic society, was basically patriarchal. If a nations pantheon can be taken as a more or less faithful index of its human level of existence, then, the fact that gods dominate the early Vedic pantheon and are more numerous than the goddesses is significant

In pre-Vedic Indian society, goddesses were equally, if not more, powerful and plentiful; this is shown by the artefacts found in the excavations of prehistoric sites.

At the first clash of the two peoples, the pantheon of the indigenous population, like their worshippers, suffered a defeat and went underground. But with time the old gods steadily regained lost ground and retrieved their lost prestige. Thus in the Brahmanas we have the first signs of the return of the mother-goddesses into power. Nirrti, Saci, Midhsi, Yami, Ambika, Rudrani, Sri, Laksmi, Sarasvati (or Vac) re-emerge as mother-goddesses.

Puja versus Yajna

One reason of the Aryans partial religious surrender is the pre-Aryan worship of images; the visual appeal of the gods captured the imagination of the Aryans who worshipped ideas. Besides, Puja (worship of idols) is much more colourful than Yajna, although Yajan might well have been more awe-inspiring. Puja has a greater and more direct appeal to mans aesthetic sense.

Agamic versus Nigamic (Vedic)

The Aryans were a nomadic people and so had no temples or images. The primitive sacrifices must have been of a rough and ready sort although the Brahmanical ritual was a much more elaborate affair. But they had to compete with visible images, which naturally increased their hold on the popular imagination. Besides, images and their worship had infiltrated into the Aryans homes though their non-Aryan wives. The result was a compromise: the superior beauty of the hymns, their language and poetry retained its hold while the concrete images were adopted because of their immediate and inescapable aesthetic appeal and greater realism.

Many of these images were female figures and they filled a gap in the Aryan pantheon. The goddesses gained in stature and significance. History became a conflict between these two forces: the old, stable unawakened matriarchal powers against the new, mobile, liberating tendencies of the equestrian peoples which were rising into consciousness (Karl Jaspers, The origin and goal of history, p. 16).

This distinction between the patriarchal and matriarchal pantheons is linked to the other distinction of the Agamic and Nigamic religions (Note 1) The Agamic element embodied in the popular and perhaps the pre-Vedic oral religion (as the name indicates) gradually infiltrated the accepted official religion. With the close of the Brahmanical period it had reached the culmination of its first phase when the Aryan gods ruled the pantheon, and the popular gods occupied a subordinate position.


Buddhism made its influence felt in the next period. The Buddha acknowledged the existence of Vedic deities (Note 2). They were regarded as powerful agents somewhat above men who were subject to the laws of nature and had to be redeemed by the Buddha, for they were far from being perfect. Sometimes they symbolize the various powers of the Buddha. Asanga the famous Mahayana author introduced the Brahmanical gods as agents to whom men could pray for worldly objects. It was a compromise with Hinduism. As a result the images of the Bodhisattvas came to be many handed like the Indian gods. When Buddhism revived the Brahmanical gods, the old Agamic gods all were revived

Proliferation of gods

As time went on the number of gods increased rapidly.

Instead of reducing them to many manifestations of one, two or three abstract ideas it is safer in mythology to adopt the attitude of Yaskas yajnikapaksa, which believed that there were as many gods as there were names. The classification of all the hierophanies into three major gods came later and was acknowledged only by a few; to the vast majority of the people gods remained many and to them this was desirable; they respected the functional and regional variations because they needed them

History of texts

The major Buddhist texts of the Pali Canon were composed between 500 BC and AD 200.

The two epics (Ramayana and Mahabharata) belong to the centuries immediately before and after Christ. The Ramayana, as we have it, is thought to have been completed between 200 BC and AD 200. The Mahabharata, whose inception belongs to c.400 BC or even earlier, did not assume its present shape (i.e. including the later Puranic interpolations) until the fourth century AD or a little later. The epics were not overtly scriptures, yet posterity regarded them as such and in their final redactions they themselves laid down such a claim. The bulk of the heroic tales of both belong to the same period (200 BC AD 200), but the antennae reach beyond the upper limit and the interpolations continued in the succeeding period of brisk activity of Puranic texts when the epics were reshaped so that the Ram. became a Rama Purana and the Mbh. a Krsna-Purana.

Mahayana Buddhist texts which deify the Buddha and introduce a new Buddhist pantheon are contemporaneous with the heroic sections of the epics

Note 1: (the authors footnote)

In this book I have sometimes used the terms Agamic and Nigamic, terms which are quite familiar in India with accepted usage in religious terminology. In Mbh. XIII: 145 : 61 we read: Agama lokadharmanam maryada purvanirmita (the Agamas are the previously ordained confines of the popular religion). In actual usage Agama generally signifies Saiva texts and also all pre-Vedic (i.e. popular, indigenous and hence non-Vedic) religious treatises, chiefly oral and chthonic in character. Vedic Aryan religion was mostly sun-oriented and this was Nigama, i.e. Vedic. Later, the Tantras, i.e. scriptures of the mother-goddess (Sakti) were called Agamas, and still later, certain Vaisnava texts, too, called themselves Agamas.

Note 2:

The author is here obviously misrepresenting the Buddha who not only rejected the Vedas but also did not recognize the existence of God. The subsequent intrusion of divinities and deities is clearly a departure from - even a calculated corruption of - the original teachings of the Buddha.

Other related posts:
Pre-Rgvedic Bilingualism: Pre-Indo-Aryan and Dravidian
Tamil and Sanskrit

#793 - June 23, 2009 09:12 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
Advaita, Soul and Creation in Siddhanta

Most people are confused about siddhanta and advaita vedanta is because
they are not really familiar with both other than a cursory understanding.

Both siddhanta and Shankara's vedanta are advaita. Except that in
advaita vedanta there is a simplistic explanation that everything is
maya. In siddhanta, both the pasu and pasam exist but are not Real, and they have an
elaborate and sophisticated explanation of it, which is where everyone
gets lost, and get confused that perhaps siddhanta is not advaitic.

Advaita means non-duality, and is NOT Oneness, or ekatmavada. There is
no Hindu philosophy that believes in ekatmavada. All Hindu philosophies
are shades of non-duality. Shankara's is one, and siddhanta is another.
They differ in the way they rationalise it. That is the gist of it.

One issue is the question of souls. In siddhanta souls are fettered or
bonded by anava, thus making the all-pervading soul atomic in size. The
soul thinks it is atomic and identifies itself with the body and
attaches to the world. In mayavada vedanta, the souls are mesmerised by
maya to think it is different from brahman, when (actually) there is no

Anava is the individualising principle. From the root word anu, or
'atomised'. Anava is what makes the soul different from other souls, and
different from Siva. The concept of anava is absent in vedanta.

Siddhanta says souls are fettered by anava, and because of that it is
different from Siva. That is true. But that truth lasts only until such
time the fetters gives way. When the fetters come undone the soul
realises the higher truth that is is not different from Siva, and rushes
to merge with Him. There is an actual merging or Becoming Siva.

Whereas in vedanta, once a soul realises it was all just maya that
deluded the soul, the soul realises it is brahman. There is no merging
because it was never unmerged from brahman anyway at any time.

In siddhanta there is 1) an actual fettering by anava, 2) then there is
unfettering called mukti, 3) then merging, or sayujyam.

What makes siddhanta different from all other philosophies in the world
is that it is built on verifiable truths, reason with logic, and
deconstructs other philosophies using the same logic, without relying on
testimonies of shastras and saints
, which is what all other philosophies
relies on. Other philosophies relies heavily on quotes from shastras,
and cannot stand otherwise!

The western concept of 'creation' is 'something coming out of nothing', whereas the eastern understanding of creation is 'something changes into another state'.
This transformation is called 'creation'.

In siddhanta a basic agreed rule is that something cannot come out of nothing,
and cannot go into nothing.
In this sense all things just changes forms or
state, and therefore nothing is ever really 'created' and nothing ever really
'destroyed'. It is in this sense that we say the essence of the soul is
uncreated, beginningless, whereas its transforming, coming into individualistic
existence with a unique soul body as an encapsulated soul is what we say as

The purpose of god's creation is so simple; from His point of view He has never
'created' or done anything for want. It is from our point of view that we see
the constant change, and term these transformations as creation, preservation
and destruction.
So we ignorantly demand an answer: why did god create the
world? Then we go about rushing here and there founding all sorts of
philosophies and religions to explain a non existent problem.


From the book "Studies In Saiva-Siddhanta", by J. M. Nallasvami Pillai.

Advaita According To The Saiva Siddhanta

In a former paper contributed to The New Reformer we dwelt on the Personality of God as understood in the Saiva School; and we propose to dwell at length on the Advaita Philosophy, as expounded by the Siddhanta writers, and we crave the earnest attention of all students of Indian Philosophy; and we confidently hope that as this philosophy is more and more understood, it is bound to win its way into the hearts and hopes of all sincere people of every religion. As we pointed out in our last paper, this philosophy has only been placed before the world at large without being hidden under a bushel, within a short time, and there is all the future before it, when it can shine like a beacon light from the summit of the loftiest hill.

And first we have to point out that the word 'Advaita,' pure and simple, is used to describe their philosophy by all Siddhanta writers; and the word Visishtadvaita never finds place in the Siddhanta Literature. People who for the first time hear of this philosophy put it down at once as Visishta-dvaita, without pausing to enquire into its real aspects. But, as we said above, all Saiva Siddhantis call themselves strict Advaitis. Saint Meykandan uses the word 'Advaita ' in his commentary on the second Sutra of Sivajnanabodham in the passage and expounds his system of Advaita. In another place, he calls his system 'Advaita,' and addresses his pupils as 'Advaiti.'

Saint Umapati Sivacharya uses it in the following introductory verse in Sivaprakasam: -

"We expound here the beauty of Saiva Siddhanta, the cream of the Vedanta, whose excellent merit consists in its exposition of the Advaita, postulating an inseparable relation like body and soul, eye and the sun, the soul and the eye, supported as it is by the Dharma of the highest authoritative books, and unlike the Bheda and Bhedabheda and Abheda relations illustrated, respectively, by light and darkness, word and meaning, gold and ornament, set forth by other schools, and which is further supported by perfectly logical methods, and is light to the truth-seekers and darkness to others."

Saint Tayumanavar uses the word freely and has this verse in praise of his Parama Guru Saint Meykandar:

"Oh! for the day when I can reach the feet of my lord, who found the truth of the pure Advaita, and which could not be comprehended by persons dwelling in untruth".

There is another verse of his also in which he uses the word twice, illustrating and explaining the meaning of the word itself, and which will be discussed later on:

"Oh! for the day when I will be in Advaita relation with God, as I am now in Advaita relation with Anava (the world)".

Going back to the word itself, it occurs in the following passages of the Veda and Upanishats, and in a few other places: -

"Eka eva Rudro Nadvitiyaya tasthe" [Yajur Veda, 1. 8. 6).

"Ekhohi Rudro Nadvitiyaya tasthe (Svetas Upanishat, 3, 2).

"Ekamevadvitryam" (Chhandogya Upanishat, 6, 2, 1).

"Santam Sivam Advaitam Chaturtham Atma" (Mandukya Upanishat, 7).

"Amatras chaturtavya vakarika prapunchopasamas Sivodvaitavave." - The partless fourth, incomprehensible, that ends aill going out Siva-advaitam. (Mandukya Upanishat, 12).

The first two texts give the word in its original form, 'Nadvitiyam,' and the word now in use has been got by elision of the initial 'n'; and 'na ' is the negative prefix. The word literally means therefore no two, or not two. The word as used in the texts quoted above and as read with the context would not convey all the philosophic meaning which has been, imported into it by the Acharyas of various schools. It simply meant there was no other person except the one mentioned at the time. In the first text, it meet an that there was only one God and no second God. However this be, we have to deal with the word as brought into use by the various schools. And the negative prefix has been taken to mean variously. This prefix is said to connote (1) "Inmai" or Abhava, positive negation, (2) "Anmai" Sadrisyam, and (3) "Marutalai" or virodha - or the opposite.

Both in Sanskrit and in English, the same prefix or word is used to denote the first two meanings, but in Tamil we have two different words 'illai' and 'allai' to denote these two different meanings. If in the word 'Advaitam,' the first meaning be taken, it would mean that one or other of the two or both would be non-existent, and it would mean one only out of the two or neither. Sivajnanasvamigal points out that almost all the Acharyas of other schools, including Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhva take it to mean 'one,' taking the 'Abhava' meaning. If the Sadrisya meaning be taken, it would mean non-different or non-dual.

This section is from the book "Studies In Saiva-Siddhanta", by J. M. Nallasvami Pillai.
Advaita According To The Saiva Siddhanta. Part 2

"Count Tolstoy defines religion as "a certain relation established by man between his separate personality and the endless universe or its source; and morality as the perpetual guiding of life which flows from this relation." And Siddhanta writers attempt to trace alike this relation between God and man and the world, and thereby discover the means or Sadhana for our guidance whereby we can get rid of all pain and sin, And the first postulate is contained in two words in the second Sutra of Sivajnanabodham:

"God is one with them, and different"

And Saint Arunandi Sivacharya adds another relation, 'one and-different.' Here then is involved 'Abheda,' 'Bheda,' and 'Bhedabheda' relations. But other schools postulate one or other of these relations, and the similes used are 'gold and ornament' to denote the Abheda relation, 'darkness and light,' to denote Bheda relation, and 'word and meaning' to denote the Bhedabheda relation. And there can be no reconciliation between these views, and no meeting place between them. The Siddhanta postulates all these different relations, but by other similes, such as body and soul to denote Abheda, eye and the sun to denote Bheda, soul and the eye to denote Bhedabheda, as set forth above in the stanza quoted from Saint Umapati-Sivacharya, and yet so as not to be contradictory. There must therefore be something peculiar in this view which makes it possible to admit of all these different relationships or aspects, and yet not to be self-contradictory, and to appear as one harmonious whole. And it is this peculiar relation which cannot be easily defined or described, that is denoted by the word 'Advaita.'

And Saint Meykandan accordingly discusses this word in his first argument. "The word Advaita cannot mean one-ness or Ekam; no one can think of himself as one, and the very thought implies two things. The word simply denies the separateness of the two, Anyansti, and hence God is said to be one with the souls," that is to say, Advaita is Ananya or non-different. The relation is such, that though there be difference in substance, no separation is possible, and the word is used to emphasize* its non-different character. And he instances the case of a man and his body. Though these are different, yet man identifies himself with the body, owing to the inseparable connexion between the two, and so practically they are one or non-different. So too, the soul identifies itself with God, though God is not the soul, and the soul is not God ; and hence God is one, and not one with the soul. And in the second stanza, he develops this argument, and analyses the text 'Ekamevadvitiyam' and illustrates it.

'Saiva Siddhanta in Historical Perspective' – Dr T B Siddalingaiah (c2004)


….. Mayavadam is named after the exposition it makes, Appearance (Maya). Maya in the Mayavadam is indescribable (anirvacaniyam). Maya in Siddhanta is real for it is a derivative of the power of Siva. It is one of the categories of the Siddhanta system. As such the maya of the Siddhanta is entirely different from that of the Mayavada.

Umapati calls the Saivasiddhanta the essence of the Vedanta and clearly implies that the name is applicable in contradistinction to ‘Vedanta’.

Mayavada is known as Advaita system also for its basic tenet is Advaita. Siddhanta also speaks of advaita. For the expression ‘advaitam’ occurs in the Sruti and every philosopher interpreting the Veda for that matter has to interpret it, albeit, in his own way.

The word ‘Advaita’ is understood in the ‘privative’ sense (abhavartha) by the monistic schools, and Mayavada is one of them. This means ‘not-two’ in the sense of non-existence of two, implying really ‘one-ness’. The dualist school understands it in the negative sense (virodha). This negative signifies the opposite, i.e., ‘not-two’ means ‘one’.

Saiva Siddhanta adopts a third meaning of negation, i.e., ‘otherness’ (anyatvam). ‘Other than two is denial, not of two, but of the duality of two’. And so Siddhanta says that ‘advaita affirms neither the absence of a second (monism) nor the being of a second (dualism), but affirms only the secondlessness of the second. What appears to be second to Brahman in being is, nevertheless indeed not second to it because of union, pervasion and relation’.

As the Siddhanta system was conceived in Tamil land and in the Tamil language, it makes use of two Tamil words, anmai (negation of a quality) and inmai (negation of existence). These two words were time-honoured and haloed by the hymnists of the Saiva world. So in advaita the Siddhanta finds ‘anmai’ and interprets it that way. For God is all pervasive (vyapaka) and everything else is in it (vyapya). As such ‘what is therefore denied of the two is their otherness which furnishes the basis for duality and what is affirmed, by implication, is their inseparability, inalienability, a positive condition of invariable co-presence’. So ‘advaita does not exclude the being of the two but only their mutual exclusion, duality’.

The Mayavada was called the ‘Kevaladvaita’ and the Siddhanta school was named ‘Suddhadtvaita’ as opposed to it. Meykandar established this system on the basis of the interpretation of the expression ‘advaitam’. …..(p.103 – 105)

The name Meykandar is a descriptive proper name. It means ‘one who has seen the truth’. Arulnandi clarifies it saying the ‘one who has seen the false and avoiding it, perceived and persisted with the Truth’….. And it is Poet Tayumanavar (17th century), who fully gives the actual meaning of the name ‘Meykandar’. ‘Meykandar is Meykandar (one who has seen the Truth) for he has realised the meaning of the holy word ‘advaitam’ which the other false philosophers could not see’. It can be said without any exaggeration that the contribution of Meykandar is the interpretation of this word ‘advaitam’, on which stands the whole edifice of the siddhanta philosophy. To give a correct interpretation of this word he had to elaborate the stand-point of Siddhanta in a mutually consistent manner, and the result is the Sivananabodam, the first systematized work explaining the Siddhanta school. (p.84 – 85)

The Saiva Siddhanta understanding of non-dualism is unique and steers clear of the classical absolutistic, pluralistic, dualistic and monistic interpretations. Its approach to the question of the relation of man and God as exemplified in the set of analogies which it prefers in lieu of the classical ones defines its position as a philosophy of ‘non-dualistic’ advaitism. This may be taken as an ‘unqualified’ interpretation of advaita or ‘pure advaita’ (Suddhadvaita, where the epithet ‘pure’ is to be understood as qualifying advaita negatively, i.e. unqualified). (p.257)

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited March 02, 2010).]

#794 - June 30, 2009 05:03 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
The Fundamental Ontology of Saiva Siddhanta

Everything is not so simple. 'Empirical Existance' does not mean 'Real'. People callously jump to the conclusion that the two words to mean the same. What Meykandar said is that the soul is neither real nor non-real.

Here is the link for the Meykandar Karutturai.

Even Meykandar mentions the Veda as the 'precious scripture'.

"When the Rg-Veda says 'one', it means that reality is one, that the Lord is one. Thou who sayest 'one', understand that thou art soul bound by the fetter. The Veda means that just as there can be no letters if the vowel 'a' is not, so there is nothing (if Brahma is not)."

So brahman is the only Reality, as the other two cannot stand if not for Him. At all times there is only One Reality! Not two, and certainly not three.

...Lord is in advaita relation (with souls), the precious Scriptures do not say 'one' but 'not two'.

3. These souls are continually dying and being born: for there is not coming into being except for that which undergoes both evolution and dissolution.

"Thou who hast forgotten the passage of the Scriptures where it is said that the world is active in the presence of Siva who abides for ever, understand that the soul with Siva as its enlightener has a conscious experience according to its works. Siva is not conscious of the non-real, because the non-real is nothing."

"All things which are known by sense-conditioned knowledge are non-real: for they are light and not light (mine: darkness, or absence of light)."

The entire world, pasam, is only known by sense conditioned knowledge. It, pasam, is non-real.

"That which is neither knowable nor unknowable but beyond speech and mind, and yet is comprehensible, is Absolute Spirit, the Real:"

"In the presence of the real all things are non-existent; so the real does not know (them). The non-real is not; so it cannot know (the real). (Therefore) that which knows both is the soul which is neither."[/]

[b]The soul is neither real nor non-real.
But in the presence of Siva (Real) nothing else exists. It is like asking the sun, 'where is the darkness'? Upon close observation, the question arises, "Where is the mirage of water? It (the mirage) does not exist."

"In the presence of the real the non-real does not appear: for in the presence of the true the false cannot appear."

The same logic applies to souls. In His presence, where is the darkness, where is the soul?

Here in para 7 he says, "God, the Real, does not know Pasa, the non-real; for the non real cannot appear in the presence of the real, even as darkness cannot exist in the presence of light. And even if God did know Pasa, He would not know it objectively, because it does not exist apart from Him".

"The statement in the Sutra that in the presence of the Real everything non-real is non-existent, sunya, is interpreted as not denying its empirical existence, but as asserting that it does not appear in the presence of God, whose knowledge is not empirical. "

"....In His presence there is no inglorious non-real, even as there is no darkness in the presence of the sun."

"That which knows both is the soul which is neither. (In other words) that which knows both, that which knows when helped to know, that which is in union with both, is the soul."

So there is the Real (Pati), the non real (pasam) and the neither real nor non-real (pasu). IOW, the soul is non non-real.

This is the basic ontology of saiva siddhanta, which over time hardened into three entities, then later corrupted and hardened even more to three eternally separate and uncreated realities. That untruth falls today.

Pasam is asattu (அசத்து),
Pasu is satasattu (சதசத்து).

'asat' (அசத்து - asattu) is translated as 'non-real' (இல் பொருள்);

'sat' (சத்து - sattu) is translated as 'real' or 'reality' (உள் பொருள்).

Lets just look into the dictionary.

5 sat mf(%{satI4})n. (pr. p. of 1. %{as}) being , existing , occurring , happening , being present (%{sato@me} , `" when I was present "' ; often connected with other participles or with an adverb e.g. %{nAmni@kRte@sati} , `" when the name has been given "' ; %{tathA@sati} , `" if it be so "' ; also ibc. , where sometimes = `" possessed of "' cf. %{sat-kalpavRkSa}) RV. &c. &c. ; abiding in (loc.) MBh. ; belonging to (gen.) S3Br. ; living Mun2d2Up. ; lasting , enduring Ka1v. RV. &c. &c. ; real , actual , as any one or anything ought to be , true , good , right (%{tan@na@sat} , `" that is not right "') , beautiful , wise , venerable , honest (often in comp. see below) RV. &c. &c. ; m. a being , (pl.) beings , creatures RV. &c. ; a good or wise man , a sage MBh. R. ; good or honest or wise or respectable people Mn. MBh. &c. ; (%{I4}) f. see %{sati4} below ; (%{sat}) n. that which really is , entity or existence , essence , the true being or really existent (in the Veda7nta , `" the self-existent or Universal Spirit , Brahma "') RV. &c. &c. ; that which is good or real or true , good , advantage , reality , truth ib. ; water Naigh. i , 12 ; (in gram.) the terminations of the present participle Pa1n2. 3-2 , 127 &c. ; (%{sat}) ind. (cf. %{sat-kR} &c.) well , right , fitly. [Cf. Gk. $ for $ ; Lat. {sens} in &343162[1134 ,2] {absens} , {pra-sens} ; {sons} , `" guilty "' , orig. `" the real doer "' ; Lith. {sa1s} , {e4sas} ; Slav. {sy} , {sas8ta}.]
9 sAt 3 n. N. of Brahman L.

1 asat mf(%{a4-satI})n. [in RV. seven times %{a4sat} and five times %{A4sat} with lengthening of the accentuated vowel] not being , not existing , unreal RV. vii , 134 , 8 AV. Up. Kum. iv , 12 ; untrue , wrong RV. ; bad S3Br. Mn. &c. ; (%{n}) m. Indra L. ; (%{tI}) f. see s.v. below ; (%{t}) n. non-existence , nonentity RV. AV. &c. ; untruth , falsehood RV. vii , 104 , 8 ; evil Ragh. i , 10 ; (%{ntas}) m. pl. bad or contemptible men MBh. &c.

Constant would be a corollary of reality. Sat is also a name of Brahman.

The pasu is sat-asat - real non-real, or, non non-real. Pasam is non-real.

Let us recap the fundamental ontology of saiva siddhanta as per Meykandar.

ontology - the nature of things.

We see the world around us and observe change; simultaneous creation, preservation and destruction. This is a self evident empirical fact, therefore the world exists which is an axiomatic truth.

The world has Empirical Existence, but is not necessarily Real. A pre-requisite of existence, is space-time, meaning it comes into existence after the commencement of time, therefore subject to change.

empiricism - observable evidence based verifiable experiential knowledge rather than theory or logics.

1. whatever has no components, or is further unanalysable, cannot undergo change, is constant,

and it follows that,

2. that which does not change is real.

Meykandar says, "that which is neither knowable nor unknowable but beyond speech and mind, and yet is comprehensible, is Absolute Spirit, the Real."

My definition is;

a. that which transcends space-time and form, is Real, is timeless.

b. that which is within space-time, undergoes changes, is not eternal, not Real.

Hence, the world (pasam) exists but it is not Real.

Does darkness exists? Darkness is just the absence of light. Darkness exists but is not Real.

Does ignorance exists? Ignorance is just the absence of knowledge. Ignorance exists but is not Real.

7. "In the presence of the real all things are non-existent; so the real does not know (them). The non-real is not; so it cannot know (the real). (Therefore) that which knows both is the soul which is neither."

The soul knows both god and the world as existential experience, so it is in a separate class by itself, as neither real nor non-real, or non non-real. It is defined in the negative.

This is my understanding of the SivaJnanaBodham and the Meykandar Karutturai, which is there for all to read. It needs no interpretation.

If pasam was real, then it would be not further reduceable, not further unanalysable, and therefore perfect and non evolving. But that is not the case as we have established that the world evolves, and at the end of time (mahapralaya) it is dissolved without a trace. For without space-time it vanishes like the darkness upon the approach of light, leaving no trace that it ever existed.

If pasu was real, then it too will not evolve and shed its component parts, the malam. But we have established that the soul does evolve until such time the anava is totally eradicated and the sat-asat soul then becomes 'sat' only this stage the soul is 'sat' and pati too is 'sat'. There would be no difference between then. The only thing that kept the soul different from pati was the anava and that has evolved away. With no barriers between the pasu and pati, the two would merge in saayujyam, as two 'sats', two realities, cannot exists separately and independently.

Therefore, both pasam and pasu are not realities, although they exist.

For the last couple of hundred year, intellectual siddhantin scholars have put forward the view that saiva siddhanta, " is a pluralistic philosophy, based on three eternal realities, where there is a nondual but eternally distinct god and souls at His feet." In the last two years in a series of articles till the last few months and days I have demolished that view and it lays shredded in tatters.

Today they unabashedly admit that siddhanta is not pluralistic but suddhaadvaita. That is one major change. Next, I have shown that not just Tirumular and Tayumanavar but Meykandar too says that the "I" and "Mine" must be annihilated till there is no more thought of " I know You". I simply reproduced Meykandar's words, so that is incontrovertible. Next, I have deconstructed and demolished the view that there are three eternally separate realities, rather there is only One Reality and Two Existences, reproducing the exact words of Meykandar.

With that the entire structure of pluralisitc saiva siddhanta has fallen in these last few days. A few hundred years of a corrupted and nonsensical philosophy has come to an end. My series of articles on siddhanta two years ago still stands unchallenged and unanswered. To challenge or answer is to commit intellectual harakiri. I invite all scholars to try it.

What happened to siddhantain these last few centuries? In their intellectual meanderings the scholars lost track of the vision of siddhanta. Siddhanta is not a philosophy but a Vision, although the philosophy is a secondary meaning, a tool to explain the vision. Not many realise this hence their deviation from the vision. The vision is, 'Become Siva - sivam aaki'. To 'become' is to strive and obtain His Grace. The vision was provided by Tirumular and rationalised by Meykandar, hence it is a 'siddhanta that stands all tests, the final siddhanta'.


Reference LInks:

Of Recent (some links are for the purpose of providing background
information or continuity only)


Monism & Dualism in the Tirumantiram


Tayumanavar on Advaita

Physics & Metaphysics

Shankara & the Dalit

Mukti and Ontology

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited July 04, 2009).]

#795 - August 22, 2009 12:05 PM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Religion and Hermeneutic Science-1

There is something of universal relevance and importance in the long history of Dravidian metaphysical adventures that I call Agamism and which is the true shape of Hinduism. When around 3000 BC itself Surruppak declared ‘nig.nam kalkal-en nig-e me kalkal : Ta. nikaznam kalkalyin nigavee mey kalkal: when you study the happenings around you LEARN really truths, he already brought into words a maxim that has constituted the essence of Dravidian culture where we find the religious or metaphysical life enjoyed as belonging to a SEARCH for Fundamental Truths or Axiomatic Truths.

This is the universal dimensions of the human mind for no one wants to remain trapped in falsities fantasies fictions fancies imaginations etc unless they remain bewitched by an ideology and so forth.

The human mind, despite being tuned to deep and profound metaphysical truths and hence a heroic struggle to enjoy only such truths, is also infected with various dark forces so that this search for TRUTHS gets deviated and the FALSE enjoyed as truths and so forth.

In this series I want to register my thoughts on this theme and in a language as simple as possible so that it makes sense to all would be readers. What I have written so far on this theme may be a bit demanding and to avoid it, I want to be simple as well as brief.

The question that I would ask is: What cultural forces contributed to the emergence of Botham of Meykandar, Truth Beholder so that we have religious or metaphysical life has come to be appropriated as belonging to the most inclusive Hermeneutic Science, a feat not available elsewhere in the world?


[This message has been edited by Webmaster (edited August 22, 2009).]

#796 - August 22, 2009 12:14 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-2

The Demand of Rationality

The word “science” conjures up feelings that appeal to me immensely. Perhaps this is also the case with many. It suggests not only a rational approach to solving problems but also encounter TRUTHS and hence something transpersonal and compelling. No matter how violently people differ and because of various kinds of prejudices, at the face of TRUTHS, the differences dissolve and an agreement is reached. All the personal cultural religious linguistic national and such other differences that contribute towards the egoistic prejudices do not stand at the face of TRUTHS.

TRUTHS dissolve all prejudices and reaching the very core of the struggling soul shine brilliantly illuminating the individual breeding a bliss of a kind that is peculiarly philosophical or metaphysical.

All great souls struggle to enjoy such a bliss and in that process tear themselves away from all localizing and atomizing prejudices.

This explains why Husserl sought to establish philosophy as a rigorous science and ended up with intiating the field of Pure Phenomenology in philosophy and related fields.

We must recall here that Husserl was a Jew and was deeply hurt by the prevailing Aryanism of the Nazi Germans. Perhaps he wanted to found philosophy as a rigorous science so that philosophical studies can be pursued not as various kinds of ideologies but as genuine search for TRUTHS.

It appears that Husserl failed as the phenomenological movement itself did not take deep roots.

Also we notice that Husserl did not seek to found religious life itself as a field of rigorous science, something that I wondered at as a young man.

It was at this context that I realized the enormous importance of Meykandar’s

Botham where he accomplishes this magnificently and in the course of which founds such fields as Fundamental Ontology, Fundamental Psychology and so forth as very rigorous sciences- not the positive sciences but [b]the Hermeneutic Sciences,[/] the form of Science that was already developed and applied in Tolkaappiyam itself (c 5 th cent BC)

This accomplishment of Meykandar was, even for the Tamils well ahead of his time and constituted a cultural revolution of a kind that produced in its wake great Siddhas who developed many other Hermeneutic Sciences.

But again after a few centuries where many great treatises were written and new intellectual discoveries made, it declined too and became something that appealed to some gifted individuals only.

What killed this great cultural revolution was the re-emergence of VarNa Thinking that brought along with it casteism, the eternal curse of Hinduism.

Meykandar’s great mental revolution was forgotten and he became not just a Meykandan, the Truth Beholder but a man of the VeLLaala Caste most importantly a nonbrahmin who deconstructed Advaita Vedanta of Sankara and all other Indian philosophies of his times.

At the moment he stands simply, if at all, a champion of Non Brahmin intellect where his universal appeal remains buried.

The Brahmins too have done great damage to the genuine popularity and achievement by making his Botham a translation of some sutras in Raurava Agama etc where as a matter of fact the truth is the reverse. They also diminished its uniquneness by saying that he was also a Vedantin and so forth, something that follows to this day.

If Meykandar is allowed to shine forth in his genuine brilliance, that will spell the DEATH of VarNasra Dharma and which will not be allowed by the casteic Brahmins.

The Indian mind stands to this day greatly confused and bewildered unable to understand and appreciate the revolutionary accomplishments of Meykandar where he in fact has transformed the religious way of life itself as a field of Hermeneutic Science, a field of enquiry where deep and profound truths are encountered and enjoyed.

This is the deepest demand of human rationality itself and hence something universal.

Loga ( 20-8-09)

#797 - August 22, 2009 12:23 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Loc: KL
Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-3

Two Kinds of Logic

One of the truths about our brain functions is that, to put it simply, the hemispherical specializations where the left and right hemispheres function differently. This may be related also to the presence of TWO kinds of sciences, the positive of the lest brain and the hermeneutic of the right brain.

We also see that in the last few centuries the positive sciences developed to great heights in the West and ushered in many technological revolutions that are now quite global and universal. But the hermeneutic sciences have not been developed in the West to the same extend though now there are also significant developments and called the interpretive, qualitative sciences and so forth.

I believe that it has been a peculiar essence of Tamil culture and right from the Sumerian times that they developed the Hermeneutic sciences where Tolkaappiyam stands an eloquent testimony to it. There is nothing comparable to Tol not only in the West but also in the rest of India.

Meykandar’s Botham comes in this tradition of Tol where we can also see that Meykandar was a great scholar of Tol and where his LOGIC is essentially that outlined in the Marabiyal part of Tol. I believe that this comes as an appendix and probably more ancient than Tol proper and perhaps a treatise belonging to the period of Second Academy and hence earlier than the 3rd cent BC.

While the positive sciences give rise to the Logic Measurements, the ALavai, the hermeneutic Sciences give rise to the Logic of Illuminations, the EraNam.

In the traditional Indian Logic we find the Naiyayika developing the Logic of Measurements while Tol developing the Logic of Illuminations.

In the long history of Dravidian philosophy from the time of Tol at least, we find both kinds Logic with Naiyayika more frequently mentioned than that of EraNaviyal as is available in Tol and Botham.

Botham with its Sutras and KaNdikai urai, both written by Meykandar stands unique and quite revolutionary where the LOGIC is a REJECTION of Naiyayika and a recovery of the EraNam of Tol.

This fact has remained quite misunderstood even by his direct desciples including AruNandi the authos of Cittiyar. He calls the Logic as ALavaiyal and which betrays a naiyayika type of Logic quite contrary to the Logic implicit in Botham. Thus it is not surprising that a great controversy broke out and many new treatises on Logic were written. But none of these great scholars realized that Meykandar’s Urai is Kandikai urai and as enunciated by Tol.

This KaNdikai Urai, is logical demonstrations with REASONS (eetu) and exemplifications(edutuk kaaddu) so that the assertion (MeeRkooL) stands out as an accepted TRUTH.

We do not have here any Measures, the ALavai such as the Pratyaksa Anumana Agamaa and so forth of the naiyayikas.

The EraNam, the Hermeneutic Logic provides arguments designed to illuminate and clarify the mind so that the assertion stands out as a TRUTH to all and gains their agreement.

Thus we see that [b]the EraNam is NOT a logic of measurements, axioms rules of inference and so forth[/] but rather a movement of the mind that results in enjoying Mey Unarvu, the Truth Experience.

The TRUTH validates itself and hence does not require anything outside itself, the PramaNas to validate it,

When the soul encounters a TRUTH, there is apodictic certainty coming from that experience itself and leads the person to acknowledge that as a TRUTH. In such circumstances there is a CLARITY where the pre-existent doubts and uncertainties (Aiyam) and distortions (tirivu) disappear.

Loga ( 21-8-09)

[This message has been edited by Webmaster (edited August 22, 2009).]

#798 - August 22, 2009 12:34 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-4

Galileo and Meykandar

What Galileo is for the positive sciences, Meykandar is to the Hermeneutic Sciences.

Galileo dared to challenge the Aristotelian physics and introduced the notions of measurements and experimentations to ascertain the physical truths/ Thus he threw away the hold of absolute authorities and much to the disapproval and displeasure of the Pope of his time suffering even imprisonment for his impudence. However the revolution of Galileo caught on initiating the industrial revolution and so forth and in that also the European ascendence all over the world. Of immediate importance is the developments of various kinds of technologies that changed the very shape of worldly existence itself. What the philosophies and religions failed the positive sciences succeeded immensely

Now we find science and technology permeating the whole world transforming all cultures so that overall the quality of material existence has improved considerably,

Now Meykandar did something similar in India but to the field of Hermeneutic Sciences where there was a long history of such attempts recorded in Sk Tamil Pali and perhaps many other languages.

We see a peculiar feature of Indian religions – almost all of them also developed Logic to justify their metaphysics and with that sought to establish their religion on firm rational foundations, a feature we do not see in the Western philosophies.

As already noted, in this attempt while the Tamils developed EraNam as in Tolkaappiyam, the rest of India developed the Naiyayika where there were PramaNas as the logical measures of Truths. While the ancient Pasupatas developed this Naiyayika, the Buddhists Jains Vedanties and so forth adapted this to suit their their own philosophies, where they differed in the number of pramaNas they acknowledged

There were no consensus among these philosophers and hence no common agreement at all. In fact unlike experimentation and measurements in the positive sciences there were no means of establishing the valid pramaNas. These philosophies or religions were simply belief systems where the LOGIC was simply a way of rationalising such beliefs. The Buddhists did not believe in the truths of the soul and God and hence developed a Logic to justify such beliefs. The ancient maxim of Surruppak the Sumerian and later that of Tol that logical investigations are for encountering TRUTHS the Mey NeRitttu, never took roots in India among these logicians.

It is here that Meykandar comes and rejecting the Naiyayika type of Logic with its finite set of PramaNas that would measure out truths, rediscovered the EraNam of Tolkappiyam and wrote his Botham initiating fundamental metaphysical sciences such as Fundamental Ontology Theology Psychology and so forth but all as Hermeneutic Sciences, sciences concerned with gaining Truth Experiences and nothing else.

But how was this possible for Meykandar and not for any of the so many brilliant philosophers in India?

The Hermeneutic Logic, the EraNam was already implicit as part of Tamil culture from Sumerian times itself. It cannot be an accident that even during the period of the Third Academny there were maximns of great universal relevance such as Yatum Uree YavaruG KeeLIr: the whole world is my city and all are my kinsmen, a kind of linguistic articulation that one never comes across in the whole range Sk literature that remained infected with the highly discriminatory and inhuman VarNasrama Dharma.

Now the question arises: If Galileo’s revolution caught on and now has spread across the whole world, why is that nothing comparable is noted in connection with Meykandar where now he remains quite unknown even among the Tamils?

We shall attempt to answer this question in our next posting.

Loga (22-8-09)

#799 - August 23, 2009 05:48 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-5

The Great Hermeneutic Leap

In order to grasp fully the metaphysical revolution of Meykandar and which is certainly of global importance, we have to see certain tendencies in the History of Indian philosophies.

Most of the Indian philosophies are essentially hermeneutical where we have many scriptures are subject to detailed exegetical analysis, the deep metaphysical insights buried in them wrested out and made the stuff of conscious understanding.

This is also the case even with Tamils where the tradition of writing commentaries to elucidate sutras and so forth is very ancient and well articulated even in Tolkaappiyam.

There is the initial stage of production of metaphysical texts of outstanding merits and which is followed with commentaries after commentaries and in the course of which various schools of philosophy religious cults idealogies and so forth are born precipitating various kinds of conflicts among them.

At the time of Meykandar we have the tradition of the VaishNava Acariyas who went on to write commentaries after commentaries to Nalayira Divvya Peabantam and from which emerged the VaishNava philosophies.

We have also the Vedantic Tradition of the Vedic Brahmins, also essentially exegetical. They studied the Vedas and Upanishads extracted the essences and composed the Vedanta Sutras and on which were written many commentaries that constitute now the different schools of Vedanata the Advaita Vishistat Advaita Dwaita and so forth , all written in S.India and by Brahmins.

At the time of Meykandar we have the Advaita Vedanta of Sankara , the Mayavatam, hitting the Tamil world as a storm, as described by the 9th.cent Manikkavasakar and which undermined the whole of Bakti way of life and the temple-centered Agamism.

The Advaita dismissed the natural world as something irreal, an illusison , a mere imposition by the human mind upon the Pure Brahman and which is essentially the self. The purpose of life is to free the soul from such illusions and make it realize that it is essentially Brahman and for which purpose we have to practice the Sadhana Satuddayam, the four fold practices of listenting to the Vedas, memorising them, mediating upon and remaining steadfast in such practices till Brahmajanam hits upon the self.

Such a way of life is strictly Brahamanical and reinforces the VarNasrama Dharma making a mental slave of all others to the Vedic Brahmins.

Perhaps this Brahmanic excess and irrationality is the immediate impulse for Meykandar to compose his magnificent Sivanjaana Botham and restore the basic human rights of all to enter into metaphysical pursuits and move towards moksa in their existence.

He implicitly rejects the Vedas Agamas amd so forth, hits upon the WORLD AS A TEXT, that which ought to be investigated and understood in order to move in the direction of Moksa and eventually attain it. The notion of TEXTUALITY so central to Botham, with its DUALITY of structure, the DEEP Structure and Surface Structure, brings along not the exegetical hermeneutics but Hermeneutic Science where the whole of metaphysical is appropriated as the most inclusive field of Hermeneutic Science.

Meykandar does not assume the authoritativeness of the Vedas Agamas Devaram etc and articulate a philosophy by interpreting the various slokas sutras verses and so forth as was done by the Vedanties the VaishNava Axaryas and so forth.

Now it appears that it is precisely this gigantic hermeneutic leap that creates problems for the recognition of real genious of Meykandar and place him as not only the greatest metaphysician of India but also the world, a feat well beyond the much popularized Sankara Ramanuja and so forth.

For it is not that easy to make this mental leap and begin metaphysics with taking the world as a whole a TEXT. The human mind remains FIXATED and chooses only something more local, a scripture a messiah a Rishi and so forth and remains fanatically attached to it or him. There cannot be a Christian without the belief in the absolute authoritativeness of the Bible. Similarly for Muslims Vedic Brahmins and so forth. There cannot be the different schools of Vedanta without the assumption that Vedas as Sruti are absolutely authoritative.

Meykandar undermines all these fixations and FREES the mind to pursue metaphysics as a SCIENCE where, taking the World as a Text, it is interrogated deeply and systematically so that TRUTHS, already there in the world, are encountered and enjoyed.

What makes Meykandar difficult is this demand to put aside the scriptures and so forth and taking the world as a whole a text that contains the absolute truths, SEEK out the DEPTHS where resides BEING, the God and move closer to him by practices that illuminate the mind.

In other words one need not belong to any typical religion to be genuinely religious. Any one in the wide world, no matter what kind of birth, can lead a genuine religious life by taking the World as a TEXT and seek to understand it.

In the Indian context , this implication of Meykandar undermines VarNasrama Dharma and we see why to this day the Smartha Brahmins seek to undermine Meykandar in all possible ways. This resistance is also the case with all the typically religious even among the Tamils.

Loga( 23-8-09)

#800 - August 24, 2009 05:27 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-6

The World as a TEXT

Botham, despite taking the world as a whole, the cosmos at large as its subject matter, is not a treatise on cosmology astrophysics and so forth but rather in Metaphysics, the most inclusive one at that which effectively transforms religious life itself into a field of science, the HS Now what makes me say this with so much confidence and certainty?

I notice that both my birth and death are not matters that are willed my me. Though I can will my death by planning to commit suicide and so forth, within me there is a tremendous resistance towards that. Death has to come from forces outside my control, it has to be a natural happenings just like my birth. When I contemplate on these matters so true of me but outside my control, where it is a fact that I am thrown into bodily existence and later deprived of it by forces beyond my control and regulation, a mystery hits me and I become essentially metaphysical seeking to understand the underlying forces and processes behind my birth and death, my embodied existence and its deprivation.

Now I notice that this is true and beyond any doubt not only myself but also all human beings as well as, possibly all living creatures. On further reflections we notice that this is true even of the physical world, the whole of the cosmos.

The world as a whole comes into presence, sustains itself for sometime and then suffer death. But there universe is always there and hence this process is cyclic - the world comes into being-there, sustains itself, suffers death and reappears and so forth.

This is a FACT and there can be no difficulty in understanding it. It is also an understanding that is COMMON to all, it is not an understanding that is conditioned by scriptures, religious cults, cultural dynamics of a sort, various kinds of mythologies and so forth.

It captures an understanding that is a universal, something common to all human beings (and possibly even the animals).

But as is the case with my own birth and death, it brings along it a MYSTERY- we feel that there must be forces and processes deep within the cosmos that makes the world as a whole cyclic as above. The world as a whole cannot WILL its own presence sustenance resolutiuon and re-emergence. We intuit with tremendous conviction the presence of a POWER behind it all and which is the Agentive Cause, the Nimitta KaaraNan as such.

Here begins the interpretive movement of the mind, an attempt that seeks to unfold the mystery and become illuminated about it by removing the ignorance the lingering doubts and uncertainties.

With this begins also the the most inclusive Hermeneutic Science taking the World as as a TEXT that excludes nothing. The world at large is a reality that comes into presence, gets sustained and then dissolved only to be reissued so that there is a continuous repetition and cosmic continuity. This is the Surface Structure and which is common to all human beings. All human beings no matter how differently they are culturally conditioned, can agree on this unless they choose deliberately to dissent and disagree.

But from this to move and seek out the DEPTHS where lurks a POWER that is the Agentive Cause for the Surface Structure of the world as above, is altogether another matter. It is the search for the DEEP structure and men may not make this move at all and seek to CLARIFY their own initial intuitions about such a possibility. However the moment they do this, as does Meykandar in the first sutra of Botham itself, he becomes hermeneutical and the world the most inclusive TEXT with a DUALITY of structure- the DS and SS.

And since the search into the essence of the DS proceeds as a search into TRUTHS, the enterprise becomes a science, a Hermeneutic Science at that. Where the mind moves towards the DEPTHS and seeks out to understand and be certain by not referring to scriptures, messiahs rishis and such other revelations but by THINKING of a kind, where AGREEMENT with others are also sought by giving reasons examples and so forth, then we have the practice of Hermeneutic Science and not the practice of dogmatic theology and so forth.

Here we have also the birth of Fundamental Ontology, a seeking as what is or are there where they search into the fundamental elements that enter into the composition of all but they themselves remain elementary. The entities of Fundamental Ontolgy are the identification of the basic and primordial entities that go into the fabrication of all, in themselves remaining unfabricated, uncomposed or anati.

In this way re-emerges the Fundamental Ontology of Tirumular, that Pati (BEING) Pasu (the souls) and Pasam (the binding fetters) are ANATI eternally there unfabricated but entering into the composition of all individuals that constitute what the world is.

With such clarities begins a metaphysical odyssey that tackles one deeper and deeper and eventually enables the direct encounter of Pati the BEING himself and enjoy Moksa, if blessed.


> The world as a whole comes into presence, sustains itself for sometime and then suffer death. But there universe is always there and hence this process is cyclic - the world comes into being-there, sustains itself, suffers death and reappears and so forth.>

This is a self evident axiomatic truth, that needs no further investigation or proof. Here it is established that creation, preservation, destruction and re-creation is cyclical and universal. With this we have a fundamental postulate of siddhanta - that something cannot come out nothing, that everything that exists has always existed and is therefore uncreated, and will always exist, therefore it is eternal. The point is, this does not mean Existence means Reality. That needs to be explored later.


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#801 - August 26, 2009 11:00 AM Re: Hindu Gems
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Logic Religion and Hermeneutic Science-7

Fundamental Ontology and Human Presuppositions

As we have noted, perhaps the immediate impetus for Meykandar to write Botham was the spread of Advaita Vedanta of Sankara where with its Mayavatam, a suspicion was created of the natural world, the world that is so real and in which we live. This is the Surface Structure and only by noting it as something impermanent though real that we intuit the Deep Structure and with that begin the practice of Metaphysics as the most inclusive Hermeneutic Science.

But how can we affirm the TRUTH of this vis a vis Vedanta and other philosophical systems such as Samkya Sautrantika Buddhists the Lokayata and so forth and who deny it?

It is here that Meykandar’s insistence that the textual understanding of the world that points towards Fundamental Ontology and so forth, is a matter of CudduNarvu, an understanding that is referential where there is already a presupposition of spatiotemporal referential frame in our perception of all entities.

Any statement such as “The dog is barking” and so forth presupposes the truths of “This is a dog” and “That is barking” etc. We refer to this and that and where we use the BODY as the centre of reference initially and later shift to a common spatiotemporal point and so forth and establish communications.

Meykandar notes this referentiality of our understanding of the world as a whole. He says that “oruvan orutti onRu enRu cuddapadda pirapanjam, uRpatti titi naasam udaittu enRatu”. This world that is a collectivity of individuals noted with pronouns He She It, they or their variants is a collectivity that presupposes the processes of generation, sustenance and resolution. This understanding of the world is a presupposition that is already there in all our communications, verbal or nonverbal

This understanding of the world as a whole and hence as a TEXT with DUALITY of structure the SS and DS, is a PRESUPPOSITION of all and hence something undeniable.

When the Advaita Vedanta asserts that world as such is an illusion, irreal, a dream-like reality , a superimposition of the mind upon the Pure Brahman and so forth, what is happening is that they DENY what they in fact PRESUPPOSE as TRUE and hence self-contradictory.

So the suspicion denial of the Vedanti as to the reality of the world and our understanding of it as a TEXT, is self-contradictory, seeking to deny only in mental and verbal assertions what they in fact presuppose. It is simply a mental exercise, a fiction and all motivated to rationalize certain metaphysical insights articulated in the Vedanta Sutras and so forth. We do not have here the practice of metaphysics as a search into TRUTHS in the depths but rather a rationalization of certain insights articulated in the Vedas and Upanishads and taken as something that cannot be false at all. How can the Vedas as Sruti says something false?

That the understanding of the world as a whole is CudduNarvu, something COMMON to all human beings, is undeniable and anyone who denies it, will turn out to be proponents of False Metaphysics as is the case with Advaita Vedanta here.

We also notice that here we deconstruct even the ancient samkya, the foundation of Bagavath Gita on the same grounds. They deny BEING as the Agentive Cause by stating that the Prakriti Maayai, the root stuff of the Physical world, is composed of the THREE GuNas and when there is an imbalance or disequilibrium, we have the various generative and destructive processes and hence the births and deaths and so forth. There is Purusha not as the Agentive Cause but an intelligence caught in this eternal and mechanical movements of Prakirti and Moksa is becoming free from entanglement etc and for which we have practice the Yoga of abstention and so forth.

Now this description of Prakriti Maayai, also denies that our understanding of the world as a whole is referential, presupposes the spatiotemporal framework and over and above Space there is also TIME consciousness as part of it.

A mechanical and autonomous and everlasting movement of Prakriti Maayai, does not on its own account generate the presence of Time Consciousness as such. The presence of Time Consciousness comes from the Human Understanding and in proposing the eternally and automatically moving Prakirti Maayai for accounting the dynamics of the world, is again a denial of what is presupposed, and hence self-contradictory.

We can dismiss also the Theory of Momentary Particulars, the KaNapaGka Vaatam of the Buddhists on the same grounds.

I am not a bundle of photon-like elementary particles that die the moment they are born. I am not a steam of flashes that creates an illusion of ever moving circle of light etc. I am a substantial reality, living as the same individual across space and time and where my understanding of the World is TEXTUAL with DUALITY of structure etc.

In these and many other ways, what transpires is that the World as a TEXT is a basic presupposition of all human beings and hence also the Fundamental Ontology as such. Anyone who seeks to deny it, turn out self-contradictory in a way.

Loga (25-8-09)


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#802 - October 07, 2009 02:56 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
I have wondered why is it that many find it difficult to understand saiva siddhanta when the SivaNyaanaBodham and the Meykandar Karutturai is most methodical, explicit and unambiguous. One reason is siddhanta seems formidable and intimidating and therefore many prefer to read commentaries of some of the Meykandar Shastras, or books written by secondary writers. Reading everything except the original writings! Here many get lost, stupified by the details, or cling on fixated to one principle neglecting the others.

Inorder to make siddhanta simple and easy to understand for beginners, I have compiled the SivaNyaanaBodham and the Meykandar Karutturai into a one essay style article, with the SJB sutras remaining as it is, untouched. I have removed some sentences from the Karutturai so as to keep the issues simple, and added some words and sentences mostly from the commentary by SivaNyaanaYogi (17th century) for clarification, and re-paragraphed, to make it easier to digest. I hope (wonder) this would be helpful as an introductory. Others, who are not beginners may read the unadulterated original here:

See and enjoy the masterly unfolding of Saiva Siddhanta by Meykandar using pure logic and analogies for explanations.


Saiva Siddhanta by Meykandar


Because the world, consisting of things male, female and neuter, is subject to the three operations of production, maintenance, and dissolution, it is an entity produced by an Agent. Having dissolved, it comes into being again because of Impurity. The end is the beginning, say the wise.

1. The world perceived to exist undergoes production, maintenance, and dissolution, which is self evident. Having seen every species is produced and preserved and dissolved, will the wise not conclude that this is true likewise of the world as a whole? The world therefore is an entity which has been produced by someone. It is argued that without an efficient cause such evolution is impossible; pots cannot emerge from the clay without a potter.

2. The world exists because for that which does not exist there is no coming into being. The world has an efficient cause because for that which exists there is no coming into being without a producer. Nothing can come into being except out of the dissolution into which it dissolved, for it dissolves there. That which dissolved is produced again from that into which it dissolved. That which is produced must be that which dissolved.

3. If thou sayest that that which dissolved is in the Agent of preservation, then the whole world has not dissolved. The Agents of preservation and production dissolve there, in the Agent of dissolution. When the world is produced, it is produced from the God who was the cause of its dissolution. Therefore not the other deities, but the God who performs the operation of dissolution, is the Supreme God, the Primal Cause of the world. It is argued that as the world dissolves into the Agent of dissolution, it is from Him that it will evolve when it is evolved again; for a thing evolves out of that into which it dissolves.

4. Even as the seed resting in the moist ground sends up a shot, so Maya resting on the foot of the Lord receives power to evolve. Like the caterpillar which turns into a wasp, each soul is given its due form by Him. Because God, Himself unchanging like Time, produces the world without act of production, and similarly maintains and destroys it, He is transcendent, even as the mind, or as one who remembers, when awake, things dreamed. God is unchanging, He evolves the world by volition, not by action; and in the same manner maintains and dissolves it. Therefore God, untouched by Impurity, is not limited by any bond; as one on waking and remembering a dream is not involved in it.

5. It is the Agent of dissolution that is the Primal God: for the world of souls with sense- conditioned knowledge is not self-dependent, but depends on the Agent of dissolution, whose knowledge is not sense-conditioned. Because they dissolve in the One who is not one of them, just as they are evolved and maintained by the One who is not one of them, the Agent of dissolution, who is not one of them, is the Primal God. Souls, though like Him imperishable, are in many ways His servants even there in the state of Release.


He, being one with souls and other than souls, abides in inseparable union with the Sakti, so that souls experience going and coming because of twofold works.

1. The Primal God is one with souls and other than souls: for the word advaita means ‘not two’; for if it be taken to mean ‘one’, there is that which thinks it is one. As the soul takes a body knit by sinews and sense-organs, and replies when the body’s name is called, even so is He joined with souls, and even so, because He is not soul, soul cannot be He. He is soul and is not soul. When the Rg-Veda says ‘one’, it means that reality is one, that the Lord is one. You who say ‘one’, understand that you are a soul bound by the fetter. The Veda means that just as there can be no letters if the vowel ‘a’ is not, so there is nothing if Brahma is not. Because, like tune and sound, like fruit and its essential sweetness, the foot of the omnipresent Lord is in advaita relation with souls, the precious Scriptures do not say ‘one’ but ‘not two’. It is maintained that the word advaita, ‘not two’, denies, not that two exist, but that the two are distinct. Like the sand which unites with the wax when it is melted, He being closely joined to the world of souls is in inseparable union with it. Because He enters my solitary soul, I can now say ‘I am the world’.

2. The oneness of God and soul is likened to the oneness of soul and body. The soul identifies itself with the living organism; but soul is soul and body is body. The soul can be one with the body, but the body cannot become soul. Similarly God is one with the soul; but God is God and soul is soul. God can be one with soul, but soul cannot become God. The relationship of God and soul is not any one of these three relations to the exclusion of the other two, but is all three, oneness, otherness, and implicit union.

3. Twofold works come to these souls by the Sakti of the Primal One; for His Sakti operates through twofold works, just as the protector of a city [acts] through a guard. When that which is causes rebirth, it is soul in the body that experiences the consequences of previous works. In experiencing the fruit of previous works there is action (bearing fruit in the future). Just as the ground bears fruit through the toil of the cultivator, so souls experience the consequences of their works through the operation of God. Works cannot of themselves attach themselves to souls. As the magnet draws the iron through someone placing it near, so the doers of works in that in which they work experience the consequences of their works through the Lord, who unerringly gives to each his due. If not, who else knows the works and attaches them to souls there?

4. These souls are continually dying and being born: for there is not coming into being except for that which undergoes both evolution and dissolution. When the body perishes, that which is appears, and with it the soul passes to heaven and forgets, as one forgets in a dream what was seen while awake. By reason of its works, the soul passes as subtle body into the womb, desire propelling. For the soul’s condition on departure from the material body it is not proper to use the analogy of air in a pot mingling with the atmosphere, instead of the analogies of the snake sloughing its skin, of the dream-state, and of the Yogi entering other men’s bodies; for that is an analogy of the way of the soul’s departure from the subtle body.

5. He is in inseparable union: for being neither one with nor other than His Sakti, He is omnipresent. Because He is omnipresent, He cannot be one; but if you say He is two, He cannot be omnipresent. Nothing can exist without Him. He is like sun and sunshine. They (the three fetters) are subordinate to Him; and we (souls) are His servants.


By saying that it is not, by saying ‘my body’, by knowing of the five senses, by knowledge when they are suppressed, by the absence of feeling and activity in sleep, by knowing when caused to know, it is proved that there is a soul in the body which is an instrument produced by Maya.

1. Saying the soul is not implies that there is soul. This means that that which rejects everything, saying ‘This is not the soul, this is not the soul’, and then declares that there is no soul, is itself the soul. Something which is in union with all and rejects each, saying ‘This is not I’, exists in the form of the Five Letters. That art thou. Thou art not Maya; for Maya, on which thou depend, only assists thee in this fettered state to know, as spectacles assist the eye. Thou art not the Supreme Being. Thou art different from both.

2. Saying ‘my body’ implies that there is soul. This means that because there is something which says ‘my head’, ‘my leg’, just as we say ‘my house’, ‘my wife’, that something is the soul. Thou now sayest ‘my hand’, ‘my leg’, ‘my body’, and ‘my knowledge’ – though they are not thyself.

3. Because there is knowledge of the five senses, there is soul. Because each of the sense-organs perceives only one of the senses, sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell, there is something which by means of the five sense-organs perceives the five senses; that something is the soul. If there is something which is conscious of the Five Letters – each sense-organ in the body being able to perceive only one kind of sensation – that something is thyself. Because these sense-organs perceive only their respective sensations, understand that thou art not one of them.

4. Because there is knowledge during the suppression of the senses (in meditation or asleep), there is soul. Because there is something which in the waking state says ‘we dreamed’ or ‘we did not dream’, that something is the soul. When the five sense-organs which function in the body lie quiescent, (all external sense-activity) suppressed, thou passest duly from that body and assumest a different body, and then changest back again. Therefore thou art not that body.

5. Because there is no feeling or activity in sleep, there is soul. In other words, because when the sense-organs are suppressed there is in the body no pleasure or pain or activity, and when the sense-organs are not suppressed there is pleasure and pain and activity, (there is something which, suppressing and releasing the senses, causes the absence and presence of feeling). That something is the soul. Because prana-vayu is active even when, the sense-organs being suppressed, there is no sensation or activity in this body which is the means of sense-perception, there is a conscious soul which is not prana-vayu; for if the soul unsuppressed ( on awaking) enters the body, the body possessed feeling and activity. Understand that.

6. Because there is something which knows when made to know, there is soul. In other words, because there is something, a recipient of instruction, which when it is made to know that there is One who ever knows as He has known, there is soul. What is that which knows one thing, and proceeding to know something else no longer knows the former; and which subsiding (through the five states) ceases to know? It is not knowledge. If he who has seen the Truth considers (this question) - it is the soul, which knows according to that with which it identifies itself.

7. There is a knower who, having first become one with the body, sense-organs, etc., rejects each of them, saying ‘This is not I’. If this knower is also rejected as ‘not I’, there will be a knower which makes this rejection, and so on ad infinitum. Therefore understand that that knower in the form of the Suksma Pañcaksara, is you.

8. In the body composed of products of Maya, there is soul: for they have each a different name. On examination, they are evolutes of Maya, beginning with Kala and ending with earth, and they are not lasting. If having first firmly grasped the nature of knowledge, thou inquirest what this collection of tattvas is, thou findest that it is a body which is like a lamp (to the soul). The soul is other than the body.


The soul is not one of the inner faculties. But being without knowledge owing to Innate Impurity, it is associated with them like a king with his ministers, and has five states.

1. The soul is not one of the inner faculties, Manas, Buddhi, Ahamkara, and Citta, for they are light and not light. The knowledge which Manas (mind) and the other inner faculties have of sense-objects, and the knowledge which the soul has of what rises above Manas, arise like waves in the sea. Manas and the other inner faculties are different from the senses; and soul is different from Manas and the other inner faculties. The consciousness of Manas and the other inner faculties is of external objects presented by the five senses.

2. The soul as Citta is aware (of something); as Manas it receives the sense-impressions; as Ahamkara it questions (these data); and as Buddhi it decides what the object is. Therefore because the soul functions in each of these ways, it is other than the inner faculties, just as Time is other than its measuring agents (the sun and moon and stars).

3. The soul is without knowledge because of Innate Impurity: for Innate Impurity is the obscurer of knowledge and hides it. The soul knows nothing unless it has a body, as a means of enlightenment. The eternal union of the other Impurity with the soul is like the union of firewood with fire. Firewood is one with fire and conceals it within itself. Fire, though it is one with firewood, does not cease to exist.

4. The soul has five states, waking (jagrat), dreaming (svapna), dreamless sleep (susupti), ‘the fourth’ (turiya), and ‘beyond the fourth’ (turiyatita): for when hidden in Impurity it is formless. The soul which has reached the waking state in the forehead there experiences the five states. In that position it perceives by the several organs their respective objects, and then withdraws from them.


Though body, mouth, eye, nose and ear perceive by the help of the soul, they do not know. Like them, souls, (though they know), by the grace of the Peerless One in their knowing (do not know). They are like the iron in the presence of the magnet.

1. The five senses perceive by the help of the soul: for unless the soul in union with them perceives, they cannot perceive. When the soul like a king is there ruling the five senses, the five senses do not know the soul. The soul does not perceive unless it perceives in the senses; and if the soul does not perceive, the eye cannot see and the ear cannot hear.

2. The soul knows by the help of the Primal One: for, like the sense-organs which perceive by the help of the soul, the soul does not know itself. Thou who hast forgotten the passage of the Scriptures where it is said that the world is active in the presence of Siva who abides for ever, understand that the soul with Siva as its enlightener has a conscious experience according to its works.

3. Just as the attraction of the iron is due simply to the presence of the magnet, so this experience of souls is due simply to the presence of the Primal One who dwells in them not by action but by volition. So the Primal One does not, through the soul’s experience, Himself experience change.

4. Siva is not conscious of the non-real, because the non-real is nothing. Understand that as a star shines, lost in the sunlight and yet not the same as the sunlight, the soul perceives the five senses, seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, feeling, in Him who is True (neither one with Him nor other than He), but in union with Him.

5. The grace of Isa is eternally with Him. It is Sakti. Without Him grace does not exist; without grace He does not exist. To the knowledge of those enlightened by grace, Hara is one with His Sakti, as the sun is one with the sunlight.


If He is knowable, He is non-real; if He is unknowable, He is non-existent. Therefore the truly wise say that He is neither, but is spiritual reality, knowable and unknowable.

1. All things which are known by sense-conditioned knowledge are non-real: for they are light and not light. O thou which art ignorant of the non-real, hearken. If he who has seen the Truth considers (the question), all things which (sense-conditioned) knowledge knows are non- real. O thou who art not non-real, if thou seekest analogies for the nature of those things which are and are not, they are a writing on water, a dream, and a mirage.

2. That which is neither knowable nor unknowable but beyond speech and mind, and yet is comprehensible, is Absolute Spirit, the Real: for in the case of that which is light there is no need of enlightening, and in the case of that is not light there can be no enlightening. If it be said that He is neither real nor non-real, consider then what ground there is saying that He exists. If he who has seen the Truth examines (the question), both (that which can and that which cannot be known) are non-real. Therefore the Truth, the Real, which knowledge cannot know, is Siva’s Foot. All the organs of knowledge are non-real; therefore none knows the One. And thou, the knower, cannot know (Him). If thou knewest Him, He would be (an object) other than thou. He who has seen the Truth knows (Him) by Himself. So he does not know the Peerless One as (an object) other than himself.

3. If thou sayest (He is comprehensible by) ‘meditation’, (its object) is non-real. If thou sayest, ‘meditation in the state beyond the Fourth’, it is meditation (on nothing). If thou sayest that it is neither this nor that, it is nothing. If thou sayest that it is to imagine meditation, it is meditation (on nothing). But that which is meditated upon by His grace is not nothing, but the Divine Being. He is not (an object) other than (the soul), so that the soul might know (Him). He being one with the soul’s knowledge cannot be known by the soul’s knowledge even yonder. So the soul’s knowledge cannot know and reveal Him who enlightens the soul, even as the eye cannot see the soul. He is not One, a That. Even yonder there is not only a ‘known’ but also a ‘knower’ who knows that there is something other (than himself). He is not an object to be known (by the soul) as ‘That’; He is one with the soul’s knowledge. So the soul which knows is (also) Absolute Spirit.


In the presence of the real all things are non-existent; so the real does not know (them). The non-real is not; so it cannot know (the real). Therefore, that which knows both is the soul which is neither.

1. In the presence of the real the non-real does not appear: for in the presence of the true the false cannot appear. As Hara is not distinct from (the non-real), there is for Him nothing to know objectively. If He who is not distinct from (the non-real) knew the non-real, He would not know it as (an object) other (than Himself). In His presence there is no inglorious non- real, even as there is no darkness in the presence of the sun.

2. If God, who helps souls to know, were of a nature which can be known by sense- perception and inference, He would be non-real, something perishable like the world, which is known by these means. If He were of a nature which cannot be known by any means, He would be non-existent, which cannot be known. Therefore God is Absolute Spiritual Reality, neither known nor unknown in these ways, but unknowable in one way (viz. by sense-conditioned knowledge), and knowable in another (viz. by Divine knowledge).

3. The non-real is devoid of knowledge: for on examination it is found devoid. When an ignorant man approaching a mirage thinking it to be water, he finds it non-real when he reaches it. Similarly in the absence of those who have obtained (enlightenment) and know the non-real, it (viz. the appearance of knowledge in the non-real) will seem not to be non-real. Understand, to those who have examined the non-real, it is without knowledge.

4. That which knows both is the soul which is neither. (In other words) that which knows both, that which knows when helped to know, that which is in union with both, is the soul. The soul, which studies abstruse scripture, knows both the formless and the formed; so it is neither. Its nature is that it does not appear as either of them, nor, through not appearing as either, is it non-existent. It is like the scent in relation to the flower. Knowing nothing, and then by means of a medicine (dispelling ignorance) gaining knowledge, thou whose knowledge thus changes art not real. (You who change thus from ignorance to knowledge have not the power to know.) Thou can experience the fruit of works; the non-real unlike thee cannot. Therefore neither art thou non-real. Ignorance, being non-real, cannot appear in the presence of True Knowledge. It attached itself to souls, there being souls fit for it, at the time when True Knowledge came into being. Understand that it is like salt in the cold ocean-water.


When because of the soul’s meritorious practices the Primal One enlightens the soul as a guru also, saying, ‘Brought up among savages, the five senses, thou hast lost consciousness (of thy true estate), the soul leaves them and, being not other (than Hara), reaches Hara’s feet.

1. These souls obtain knowledge by austerities previously performed: for when the soul in previous births has performed Carya, Kriya, and Yoga, these meritorious practices reveal the knowledge which is the right path, but do not themselves give deliverance. Those who have performed these practices enter the respective heaven. In order that they may sever the attachment of desire, they are born again in high station for the performance of such works, and attain knowledge. The joy which comes from prescribed acts is like the joy of one who being hungry eats and again hungers.

2. The Primal One Himself teaches these souls as a guru: for in the form of Consciousness He is in union (with him). To the Vijñanakalas He Himself appears, as True Knowledge, being Himself within them, the light (of all their seeing). To the Pralayakalas He Himself standing before them as as guru imparts True Knowledge, in His own form as Siva, four-armed, three-eyed, black-throated, and performing His three functions. To ignorant Sakalas, He imparts it concealing Himself as a (human) guru. Understand.

3. Souls do not know unless they are helped to know in the way (appropriate to their degree). Understand that all souls know when God helps them to know, not all in the same way, but according to their condition. For those which need the instruction of the Lord of the world, who Himself needs nothing, their need’s supply appears directly or indirectly. For those which do not require the teaching that supplies such need, understand that there is knowledge which brings Deliverance (through God), within them. O scholar, blest with knowledge, a woman’s milk and tears, the visible forms that reveal her invisible love, are not manifest before she sees her babe; then are they seen. Similarly He is without visible form in souls. Who could know Him who like the shadow of water is without visible form, if He did not reveal Himself, taking visible form?

4. These souls, confused by the five senses, do not know themselves: for the five senses reveal what they reveal like the colors in a crystal. Like the crystal which displays many colors, the soul thinks its nature is displayed in the sense-organs. Then perceiving that the false sense-organs, like the (crystal’s) many colors, are different from it, it sees the True and rejects the false as false; and being different from the non-real, it becomes dependent upon the True.

5. When this soul sees itself different from the sense-organs, then it attains the blessed feet of the Primal One: for if the swing-rope breaks, mother earth is our support. The soul, like a great river dammed, escaping from the restriction of sense-knowledge attains the everlasting feet of Hara and never returns, just as the river bursting the dam flows into the sea and merges itself therein.

6. If all things are He, there is none to reach His feet. If He is other than any, He is not Lord. When sight is regained by the blind, see the superiority of the eye. O thou who hast learnt the great truth that thou art not like the sense-organs, the Sakala soul which has put away the five senses and united with Siva will not leave Him by again uniting with the sense-organs. If Impurity and Karma, dispersed like water-weed, return again, the soul, meditating on Him who never forsakes it, can make them forsake it.


Let the soul by spiritual vision discover the Lord in its own consciousness - the Lord who cannot be known by imperfect knowledge and sense-perception. Which the soul abandons the world of sense as a quickly passing mirage, the Lord becomes cool shade (for it). It will ponder the Five Letters in the manner prescribed.

1. See the Primal One by spiritual illumination: for, though beyond speech and mind, He is comprehensible. When the soul, inquiring whether it is vein or nerve or bone or fat or phlegm, fails to discover what it is, it learns (that there is another way to know itself). Those who do not know themselves, first knowing Hara, by His grace – by what other means can they know themselves at this time (of Release)? The eye which is enabled to see cannot see itself, or the soul which enables it to see. The soul which is enabled to see cannot see itself (or God). God is in the soul hidden like a thief. See Him there.

2. When the various colors which are non-real are seen to be non-real, what thus arises is rightly understood to be Knowledge itself. When the non-real is rejected, will not the Primal One, the Absolute, who is without gunas, without impurity, who is eternal bliss, supreme, come and appear as boundless wonder and never-failing knowledge?

3. When that which is known objectively has been recognized as non-real, understand that that which then is rightly known is the real. Thou who hast been knowing (in union with the non-real) art not the real. If thou unitest with the Divine Essence, by that union the non-real will be completely removed from thee. When the soul sees that what it sees is not (the real) and abandons it as non-real, and searches and sees the Lord in itself, then it rids itself of the defect (impurities) with which it has been associated from of old.

4. Now repeat the Five Letters after the manner prescribed. For, although for these souls Knowledge has shone forth, they tend to turn their former Ignorance, like a caterpillar which has fed on neem (returns to bitter neem even after eating sugarcane, due to a force of habit). If the soul knows by the Five Letters that it belongs to Hara; if in the heart it worships Him by them; if in the navel it offers oblation by them; if between the eyebrows it meditates; then in that meditation god will appear and the soul will become His servant. If the soul sees Siva in its own consciousness, He will appear as the enlightener, just as fire appears when sticks are rubbed together. The soul, like iron in the fire (which loses it's hardness and becomes like fire), becomes His servant. Recite the Five Letters.

5. Understand by recitation of the Sri Pancaksara that the soul belongs to Hara. In the centre of the brow, the seat of the Bindu, meditate ‘He is I’, giving to the three syllables Si, va, and ya the meanings of Tat, tvam, and asi respectively. If you do so, God will be manifest to you in that meditation; and you, the meditator, will become His servant by meditating on yourself and God as the dependent and the self-dependent. By recitation of the Sri Pañcakshara the soul rejects the world known by the soul’s sense-conditioned knowledge and destroys its attachment to it.


When the soul, having become one (with the Lord), even as the Lord is one with the soul, abides in the Lord’s service, powerful Karma and Mala and Maya pass away.

1. As (in the fettered state) Paramesvara is one with these souls, in like manner (in the freed state) they must be one with Him: for it is when the soul is one with Him that it puts away the self-conceit which speaks of ‘I’ and ‘mine’, and reaches the Sacred Feet. To those who think in terms of ‘I’ and ‘he’, there is the conscious soul; and so the Lord does not appear as Himself but as the soul. Those who say not ‘I’ but ‘He’, the Lord brings to His Feet, and He appears as Himself to them.

2. It is necessary to abide unfailingly in His service; for if the soul does nothing except by His grace, Ignorance and Karma cannot enter. If the soul realizes that the sense-organs are not it, nor in its control, and that the objects of sense-perception are not it, and that it is dependent upon Hara, then for those in such service of the Lord, in whatever body they may be, works do not exist, and previous works also (cease) in the presence of the Giver. It is the duty of a master to protect those who depend on him. So though the Lord protects those who depend on Him, there is no partiality in Him. He makes His servants who depend on Him one with Himself; and to others He gives their works, just as He gives the previous works that belong to them.

3. Like the odor of asafoetida which lingers in a vessel, previous works and Maya may be stirred up for the spiritually enlightened. But the future consequences of works and Maya do not continue, for, being one with real, the soul knows its support. Like those great ascetics whom fire cannot burn, like the horseman who (unshaken) rides a swift horse, the spiritually enlightened, who study (to avoid entanglement with the senses) and know the Feet of Hara, though they perceive by the senses, will not on that account abandon what they have won. If the spiritually enlightened, who are real non-real, see by the grace of the Real, there is no attachment to Pasa. So those who are in union with the Real are not involved in the non-real, which cannot function there, even as darkness (cannot remain) in the presence of fiercely blazing light.


Like the soul which makes the seeing eye to see - in order that the soul may see, the Lord sees, and makes the soul to see. Therefore in unforgetting love the soul reaches the feet of Hara.

1. He also knows that which is known by souls: for these souls without Him of themselves know nothing. Because the soul perceives the objects of the five senses standing in union with the respective sense-organ, it does not perceive all five at once, but perceives them one by one. But He who is One perceives all things simultaneously. When the soul, becoming one with God, experiences His grace, God is Bliss and Perfect Loveliness (to the soul), and is also one with it. Therefore will He not know through the soul that which the knower knows?

2. The eye cannot see an object unless an illuminating light uniting with the light of the eye falls also upon the object. Similarly souls, whose nature it is to know when helped to know, cannot know unless God’s knowledge unites with theirs, and, passing with it to the object, unites with it also. Alone they cannot perceive or know anything. Therefore God must be in union with the soul and know, so that the soul may perceive and know.

3. When the soul unforgetting praises God with devotion, it reaches His Sacred Feet: For God in inseparable union with souls causes the fruit of what they do, to form. Though the sun be there, it is dark except for those with sight. Even so God is invisible to those bound by Pasa. From those who know Him with love, God removes Pasa by His grace. They are like the (mature) lotus which the sun causes to open. As the moon dispels lingering darkness, Hara, who in His love dwells (with souls), dispels Impurity. Like a magnet which attracts and controls iron, He is unwearied and unchanged. Like the magnet, He does it simply by His presence, without effort.

4. If it be said that having perished the soul becomes one with the Lord-because it has perished it cannot become one with Him. If it be said that without perishing it becomes one with Him - it cannot become one with Him. Like salt uniting with water, the soul, having destroyed its Impurity, unites with the feet of the Lord and becomes His servant. There is then no attraction (of the soul to Impurity). Just as the radiance of the sun rising in cloud is at first obscured, and when the clouds pass away shines everywhere, so the radiant knowledge of the soul hidden in Impurity first has experience of the world, and then having dispelled Impurity it attains the grace (of God).


When, having washed away the Impurity which prevents it reaching the sustaining Feet that are like the red lotus-flower, and having joined the company of those who love the Lord, the soul is rid of delusion, it worships as Hara Himself the habit of those who abound in devotion, and His shrines.

1. Put away the Impurities, Anava, Maya, and Karma: for they do not give Knowledge but Ignorance. This Karma, which is associated with good and evil deeds, and Maya, which is seen (in the Tattvas) from earth to (Asuddha) Maya, and Anava which produces Ignorance - these three Impurities are not proper for the spiritually enlightened. Leave them.

2. Associate with Siva’s devotees: for those who are not, cause Ignorance. When the spiritually enlightened sever their association with the unworthy, who make them forget their true nature and fall into the Impurities, in the company of devotees they become infatuated (with love of God) and know with Divine Knowledge. Then works cannot touch them.

3. Worship the sacred habit of Siva’s devotees, and the shrines of Siva, regarding them as the Supreme Lord, for in those places He is visible, in other places He is not. In order that men may know Him the Lord gives His devotees His form, and they know Him and are in Him. So He is visible in His devotees who know Him, as ghee is visible in curds, but in those who are involved in Pasa, He is not visible. The Lord is one with the visible form, and not one with it, just as the spark of fire is one with and different from the wood. (To those who do not know it as Him) He is there by means of a mantra known to them; but to ascetics who know it as Him, will He not appear as it?

4. Worship in these places: for as the soul, which is one with nerves, sinews, etc., is also other than they, so also that Supreme Soul. For the enlightened He is not other than the world, He is not one with the world. He is not both other than and one with the world. But because the relation is non-duality, which includes all these three, all things are His form. Nevertheless, thou who knowest the truth of non-duality, worship in love.

5. The non-real arises because of works. Therefore unless works are removed, Knowledge cannot arise. When in order to remove works (the freed souls) seek and worship (those who have) Knowledge, Knowledge arises. Therefore worship (them) in love.

6. To forget Him who helped him to know himself and made him like Himself is not a sin which can be removed. Though He makes him like Himself, the soul which was a servant remains a servant. Therefore the worship of God is strength (to the soul).

7. O thou who hast learnt the Siddhanta that thou art Siva, souls with one and with two Impurities become Siva, where there is no rebirth, (the former) by the appearance of God in their consciousness, (the latter) by sight and speech (of Siva). Those with three Impurities attain it through this treatise, taught by a human guru.

[This message has been edited by Pathmarajah (edited October 09, 2009).]

#803 - October 18, 2009 12:23 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Appar on Human Autonomy

Appar was essentially trans-national as were almost all the great Tamil philosophers. We have the classic slogan Yaatum Uuree YavaruG KeeLir: The whole world is my city and all are my kinsmen.

In this remarkable verse Appar provides metaphysical insights into the thinking of such a person where he links it up with political freedom. Such an individual is essentially trans-national

Appar 1-3


vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom
maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti
niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom
niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom
kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak
kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom
paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum
paNikeedka kadavoomoo paRRaR Roomee!


We are NOT obliged to listen and obey the words of the kings
who may rule the world and ride on elephants in royal pomposity
For we have dissolved all worldly desires and also
having forsaken even family life with a women with belted-breasts
Are given to early dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise
chanting Maateeva! Maateeva and wearing only the sacred ashes and with these
melt the stone-like heart with LOVE for all and shed tears like the pouring rains.

vaaraaNda kongkaiyarceer maniyiR ceeroom: we have forsaken family life with a belt-breasted( and hence young) woman
maateevaa maateevaa enRu vaaztti: chanting Maateeva! Maateeva!
niiraanda purootayam aadap peRRoom: we are given over to dips in the cool waters along with the early sunrise
niiRaNiyung koolamee nikazap peRRoom: never forgetting to wear only the sacred ashes
kaaraaNda mazaipoolak kaNNiir coorak: shedding tears like the rain that pours from the dark clouds,
kanmanamee nanmanamaayk karaiyaip peRRoom: we allow the stony heart melt with LOVE for all and become good
paaraaNdu pakadeeRi varuvaar collum paNikeedka kadavoomoo: We are not obliged to listen and do as told to the words of the kings who may rule the world and ride on elephants in (royal) pomposity
paRRaR Roomee! : we have dissolved all attachments.


As long as one continues to live still the bodily existence, the forgetting of the metaphysical is always possible. The symbolic life, taken in the right spirit just serves to maintain oneself firmly in the metaphysical existence overcoming this forgetfulness. But this symbolic life is very simple at least to the genuinely metaphysical individuals such as Appar. It involves chanting the sacred name of Maateevaa and dipping in the cool waters along with the sunrise: a symbolic act of regeneration, the desire to become a NEW person everyday by becoming purer and purer. The desires for becoming PURE through gaining metaphysical illuminations is symbolised by the wearing of the sacred ASHES, the symbol of absolute PURITY for the ashes are peculiar -- even burnt it remains the same.

But all these are possible only if the mind is TOTALLY absorbed in the metaphysical realms and for which family life that still remains sexually active is transcended. This involves the transmutation of the sexual libido itself into metaphysical libido, the Iccaa Sakthi into Njana Sakthi which is another meaning of the Sacred Ashes so important in the Saivite way of Life.

But what is the use of all these? Appar has explained this in many places: to MELT the HEART that remains like a stone with lovelessness, a heart that has NO COMPASSION and MERCY for the suffering. The real purpose of genuine metaphysical life is to become one full of LOVE and COMPASSION ready to shed tears like the pouring rains at the sight human sufferings.

The narrow sex-dominated family is transcended only to own the WHOLE WORLD as one's family. Now this accomplishment of genuine metaphysical life also LIBERATES a person from his political moorings and hence such a person is NOT AT ALL obliged to listen to the political leaders, no matter how powerful and pompous they are for their suzerainty does not extend beyond the confines of his narrow nation. How can a person who has become a citizen of the whole universe descend to the level of a nationhood?


#804 - October 21, 2009 03:08 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Registered: February 07, 2010
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Appar on Human Autonomy-4

Appar 1.4

Appar was a great warrior but not for political freedom but for metaphysical freedom. His battles are first with himself, with his own earthly desires and evil propensities and secondly for TRUTH and which he saw in Saivism. He was interested along the way in gaining Moksa and become free from being thrown back into existential repetition.

But he was great warrior and all dictated not for some personal and egoistic reasons but as dictated wholly by BEING to whom he became totally subservient. The Ahimsa war be fought so bravely was in fact the battle of Siva himself where the soldiers were the Uruttira KaNam, the company of rudras, the celestial warriors who act in the mind of even the foes and transform them into friendly and kind people.

Such a great Baktas like Appar have always a huge army of such celestial warriors helping them out knowing which they fight fiercely and without any FEAR at all. For this reason they also never fail.


uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL
uduppana koovaNattoodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee
ceRuvaarunj ceRamaaddaar tiimai taanum
nanmaiyaac ciRappatee piRaippiR celloom
naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar
namaccivaayac colla valloom naavaal
cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda
cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee

Because we have managed to ascend to the stage where
we see everything with the brilliant Third Eye of BEING that
Powdered to dust the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark
We have as our aids the whole lot of the celestial warriors and
Have for wearing only loin clothes and rags that are not at all pompous and because of which
even those who wish to attack us become subdued and even the evils they wish to do
Become in fact good. And these because we want to escape the karma that causes rebirth
And furthermore we are blessed by BEING who appears as the one wearing
The golden garland of honeyed flowers of pleasant fragrance, a life where we become capable of
uttering continuosly the mantra NAMACIVAYA (that establishes us in universality)

uRavaavaar uruttirapal kaNatti noorkaL: the celestial warriors will become our (earthly) aids
uduppana koovaNattodu kiiL uLaavaa manRee: what we have for wearing are only loin clothes
ceRuvaanj ceRamaaddaar : even those who want to attack us will become subdued
tiimai taanum nanmaiyaac ciRappatee : even the evils that people want to do in fact shine forth as the good
piRaippiR celloom: we escape the karma that causes rebirth
naRavaar pon nitazinaRuntaaroon ciiraar namaccivaaya: The mantra NAMACIVAYA of BEING who appears as the one wearing golden garland of honeyed flowers of pleasant fragrance
colla valloom naavaal : we become capable of uttering that
cuRavaarung kodiyaanaip podiyaak kaNda: powdered to dust the antics of the Cupid having as his flag the Shark
cudar nayanac cootiyaiyee thodar vuRRoomee: we have attained seeing with the brilliant Third Eye of BEING (that shows only truth)

It is impossible to bring forth the whole range of meanings buried in the metaphors and mythologies alluded to here. Suffice to say that Appar here outlines the basic motives of all metaphysical struggles of man which is also the primordial purpose of Human Existence as such i.e. the attainment of SEEING with the Third Eye of BEING Himself, the discarding of seeing with the human fleshy eyes and seeing everything in the glow of the Third Eye that only BEING can bless one with. All we human beings can do is to become FIT for this blessings and which requires that we become CLOSE TO BEING by allowing us to be transmuted into his form offering no resistances at all.

And His genuine form is one of PURITY, a purity where worldly desires are sundered and singed to ashes. The Manmathan, the Indian Cupid, is the archetype of sexual desires, that which keeps the Kundalini forever as the sexual libido. His antics are symbolically shown by the flag of the SHARK, for earthly desires function like sharks, ready to kill anyone who gets into its sharp jaws. There is NO ESCAPE from early and untimely death for those who wallow in the earthly pleasures as if they are the real pleasures.

This severance from the antics of Manmatan is SHOWN by a life of simplicity where there is the avoidance of even wearing pompous attire such as those of the political leaders who thrive by thrilling the crowds with such pompousities. There is no showmanship to impress the crowd and maintain them in AWE so that their political control over them can continue as ever.

But this dissociation with political power and hence the securities that the armies and other defences provide, does not mean one becomes weak lacking in security. For now the whole lot of celestial beings, seen here as the Rudra KaNam (Rudra Ganas), i.e warrior gods come to the aid fighting on their behalf with all the enemy forces. Such detached individuals may have become isolated and single but NOT LONELY for unknown to the naked human eyes the whole lot of the celestial warriors are there as their aids.

And very importantly, their ACTIONS actually become the Malarcci VinaikaL, the actions of BEING Himself and hence actions that are NOT instrumental at all. Whatever effected are actions with BEING as their agents and only because of this the Ego becomes completely WITHDRAWN. And this withdrawal and allowing oneself function totally egoless and hence only as a locale of BEING ensures the non accumulation of Karma that throws one into an endless phenomenal circulation, the earthly life with unending existential repetition.

It is only at this stage that the meaningful utterance of SIVAYANAMA, the mantra of Universal Processes that sustains both the phenomenal and noumenal world, becomes possible for a person. This is the Mantra that keeps the mind forever in UNIVERSALITY and the benefits of which are symbolised as the garland of honeyed golden flowers of supremely fine and pleasant fragrance. These metaphors stand for the exultations, the Bliss that one enjoys or tastes as one continues a life as one capable of uttering openly the Namacivaya Mantra.


#805 - October 21, 2009 03:14 PM Re: Hindu Gems
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Appar on Human Autonomy-5

As one grows old and the vigour of youth departs, for most people male or female a meaninglessness sets in making life quite miserable.

In this verse Appar notes that a life of joys and contentment is a gift, a blessing of BEING provided one fights fiercely for JUSTICE, both political and metaphysical.
One of the most interesting images of Siva, quite terrible at the surface, that of wearing a garland of skulls, is elucidated to mean that a divine life is quite consistent with aggressive battles where one may even be killed. Appar was such a warrior though he was not killed by the Pallava King of his times and survived through divine interference.

More elucidations of metaphysical insights through a hermeneutic semiotic analysis of the various mythical themes Appar mentions below in the commentary.

Appar 1.5


enRumnaam yaavarkkum idaivoo malloom
irunilattil emakketiraa vaaru millai
cenRunaam ciRuteyvam ceervoo malloom
civaperumaan tiruvadiyee ceerap peRRoom
onRinaaR kuRaiyudaiyoo malloo manRee
uRupiNiyaar ceRalozintid doodip poonaar
ponRinaar talaimaalai yaNinta cennip
puNNiyanai naNNiyapuN Niyat tuLoomee

We are ever with the blessings of BEING of all blessings who
wears as the head-garland a string of skulls and we are
Because of that NOT any lesser to anyone and furthermore
There are NONE equal to us in this wide world for we avoid
The worshiping of the little gods and abide forever at the FEET of BEING , the GREAT and
Because of this we are NO

#806 - March 18, 2010 11:29 AM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Transductive Perceptions and Transcending Religions and Scriptures

This essay is prompted by the brilliant analysis of Transductive Perception by Tayumanavar, in verse 13 of the Secrets of Sitambaram, the analysis of which you can read at:

and where he calls this way of seeing simply KaaNdal.

The religious world is a mad world where there is more fanaticism than love not exempted here the Vedic Brahamans and many other members of Hindu sects. So against such developments it is pleasing to hear not only the transcendence of religions but also scriptures including the Vedas. The soul must be Pure in order to realize its own most authentic essence.

We must recall that Meykandar establishes the TRUTHS of Saiva Siddhnata not by taking the Agamas and Vedas as Piramanas but simply by analysis the World as a Text and by the application of the Method of Hermeneutic Logic.

There is in religions dogmatism fanaticism and violence only because there is Metaphysical Ignorance. Only the ignorant fools will raise the status of their scriptures to that of God Himself or the ONLY Word of God and refuse to take as valid in some ways scriptures other than his own. Thus the Christians will never accept the Al Koran and Muslims the Bible and so forth. Such a conflict also exists among the various sects of Hindusm - the Vedists cannot see beyond the Vedas, Saivites the Saiva Agamas and so forth.

However the best Saiva philosophers have also articulated the NEED to FREE the mind from such scriptural attachments to be one-with BEING. As said by Meykandar(c. 13th cent AD) BEING is vakku manaatiita koosaram, a Divine Movement (koosaram) beyond concepts and languages and hence all scriptures including the Vedas which is after all verbal. BEING cannot be captured by anything verbal and hence even by the Vedas. They can only HINT at but cannot present Him wholly.

But then how to justify this?

Such truths are understood only when we appreciate that there are Transductive Perceptions (TP) and that anyone can enjoy such powers provided he practices the appropriate yogas and tapas. He must practice various kinds of Tapas so that the hold of Malam, the Dark Stuff is weakened.

What blocks off the deeper visions as well as the metaphysical visions is this Malam and people are religious and fanatical only because the Malam is very thick in their soul. It is out of their metaphysical ignorance that they CLING to their scriptures Gurus Prophets and so forth and enjoy a kind of vicarious satisfaction. However if their Third Eye is open and they begin to SEE for themselves the presence of BEING in the DEPTHS, they begin to UNDERSTAND how the worldly events are fabricated and how BEING is there in all such fabrications.

The souls move from practicing rituals and festivals - the Sariyai and Kiriyai and where the Calendar is necessary, to Yoga where the festivals and so forth are no more that necessary. The tapas are performed to get the blessings of BEING to get the Third Eye opened and with that enjoy visions of the Depths and destroy in stages the metaphysical; ignorance.

It is in the course of this odyssey that it dawns that one must FREE oneself even from the scriptures including the Vedas to be one-with BEING without any fissure as said in the post above .

Finally it turns out that such a soul will also LEARN that BEING is ultimately BEYOND the mental constructs and words and languages. One must transcend LANGUAGE and hence ALL scriptures to understand that BEING is already with the soul in and out without ever departing even for a moment. We remain ignorant of this presence of BEING only because we remain BLIND, glued as we are to the visions of the normal five senses, closed to other possibilities.


#807 - March 21, 2010 03:20 PM Re: Hindu Gems
Pathmarajah Offline

Registered: July 22, 2004
Posts: 375
Loc: Penang
The Soul and Sexuality

A soul is a body of light, about the size of a thumb, and looks like a
linga, or a flame from a wick. It has knowing, but it cannot express
itself. In order to experience the world it needs a physical body. Of
all the species in this world, a long time ago we chose the human body
to inhabit, express ourselves and have an experience on earth. This is
an animal body and it is subject to animal instincts like eating,
sleeping and sex. Once we are born we attach ourselves to this animal
body. We cannot escape the needs and pulls of the body. We have to
accept it readily until such time the instincts wanes with old age,
where we eat, sleep and have sex less and less.

Once we drop off this animal body and transcend to the pitriloka, there
are no more demands of the physical body. We don't need to eat, sleep or
have sex there. Except, that the consciousness that we acquired on
earth leaves an imprint on our astral body (manonmaya kosa). This
imprint induces us to repeat our consciousness there in the pitriloka.

So, a person who was sex minded here on earth will be repeatedly humping
or masturbating endlessly there in the pitriloka. A person who liked to eat will
be gorging himself there. A person who like to sew will be endlessly
sewing there. A soldier who liked to fight and kill will be repeating
these motions there. According to their consciousness acquired on earth,
souls will be placed in similar 'areas of consciousness' there in the
pitriloka. Meaning all those who like sex will be placed in the
'sexloka', a subsection of pitriloka. All those who like to eat will be
placed in a 'foodloka'. All those who like to backbite, gossip and fight
will be placed in a 'fightloka'. And so on.

This goes on for perhaps hundreds of years until the consciousness
exhausts itself and the imprints worn out completely. Theoretically,
then the soul is ready to take another birth. But in practice, souls
take rebirth even before all previous imprints have been washed away.
Hence, most of us are born with the consciousness and imprints of
previous births, and we are born with 'inherent inclinations'! So we
say, born to eat, born to screw, born to sleep, etc.

Gods do not need animal bodies or even astral bodies. They are also
souls, bodies of light, sat-asat, like us, except that they only have a
causal body or anandamayakosa. They don't have any consciousness like we
do, or any imprints. 'Light' does not need sex, or the need to eat and
sleep. 'Light' is ananda itself.

Gods, being sat-asat, they transcend time-space, yet are able to be
immanent within time-space, within all of creation, pervade all souls.
Hence, like all souls they too are eternal.

There stories of gods having wives, children and erotic acts are part of
symbology, iconography and mythology - all of which can be dismissed in
this 21st century as it has outlived it's purpose.

The Tirumantiram was written for all - family men and women, as well as
ascetics. There is a way to 'manage' sex for family men through
Pariyanga Yoga. The other way is to simply have a wife and have sex
until such time the interest and need wanes.

Ascetics on the other hand are supposed to abstain from sex completely.
One chooses asceticism when one is sure that one has overcome the need for
sex. Now in practice, many are unable to maintain their vows. Failures
are inevitable. They simply have to correct themselves, get up and keep


#808 - March 21, 2010 03:30 PM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
Appar on Human Autonomy - 6

It is in the context of studying this remarkable Patikam, quite unique in the world literature that I coined the word Metapolitics to distinguish it from the ordinary politics of the earthly kings and warriors.

Appar also mentions non-violence as Kadumai aRRal and absence of greed for earthly possessions as KaLavu aRRal.

The wars in metapolitics are bloodless and are designed to transform people rather than kill them.

Appar 1.6


muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay irunaan kaana
muurttiyee yenRumup pattu muuvar
teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum
cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum
naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee
naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana
kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung
kadavamalloom kadumaiyodu kaLavaR Roomee

As long as we remain blessed with the name of CIVA forever in the mouth and
Who rules us standing with us as the brilliantly red BEING of absolute PURITY
BEING who stands as the most primordial of the THREE major archetypal presentations and
Also emerges as the UNIVERSE and hence ONE with eight forms and praised as such
By the thirty three devas and such other celestial beings.
We are NOT obliged to obey the royal commands not just of this king but even the king of the whole wide world
For we are FREE of VIOLANCE as well as GREED to own lands and properties, and snatching it from others.

muuvuruvin mutaluruvaay: The most primordial of the THREE major presentations as Aran Ari and Ayan
irunaan kaana muurttiyee : thou art also the BEING who has become this universe assuming the Eight Fold forms
yenRumup pattu muuvar teevarkaLum mikkorunj ciRantu vaazttum : thus being praised by the thirty three devas and other celestiall beings
cempalLavat tirumeeni civanee ennum: BEING with a form of glowing RED
naavudaiyaar namaiyaaLa vudaiyaa ranRee: those who are blessed to utter thus are also ruled by HIM
naavalantii vakattinukku naata raana kaavalaree yeevi viduttaa reenung : even if commanded by the King of the whole world
kadavamalloom : we are NOT obliged to obey
kadumaiyodu kaLavaR Roomee: for we are FREE of Violance and GREED

One cannot but lament the utter neglect of serious and modern studies among the Tamils with regard to the wisdom buried in their ancient literature particularly the the Sacred Tamil hymns. They are just sung as if they are simply prayers, mantras of a kind and in this FAIL to notice the enormous metaphysical insights they embody and how these metaphysical insights were gained in the course of IMMENSE SOCIAL STRUGGLES against the various forces of repression and suppression. And here in this verse we have the philosophy of Satyagraha being articulated not simply by an appeal to Ahimsa but rather with the UNDERSTADING of the real roots of political wars and for which purpose such wars are waged by the kings.

For the local politics, as opposed to the metapolitics that Appar fought for and articulates in this patikam, is founded upon VIOLANCE and GREED and hence economical and egological - the craze for enjoying POWER over others and amass wealth as for oneself. The phrase Kadumai ARRal stands for non-violance and the practice of Ahimsa and KaLavu ARRal, that of absence of greed to take possession of the lands and wealth of others as our own. When these desires are rooted out from the heart, the primordial impulses towards political wars cease to be there and a person who has ALREADY REACHED this state of Being-in-the-world can never be part of this local politics. He transcends such political membership not just to his own nation but FOR ANY king and hence for any nation whatever. The entry into the realm of metapolitics transposes an individual into another world beyond the reach of the power crazy and economically greedy kings no matter how mighty they are. '

And what accomplishes this transposition?

The acceptance of BEING , who rules this vast universe including the celestial, is also the one who rules oneself from within. But why in this context the name Civa and that he GLOWS in RED is mentioned at all?
For CIVA as LOVE only breeds LOVE and compassion and hence institutes a non-violent disposition in the hearts of whoever understands HIM as thus and keeps on muttering that NAME as a way of firming oneself in that way of Being. And the RED glow signifies the burning of ALL DESIRES and hence becoming PURE without any GREED.

The worship of BEING as such is NOT just simply transformational, it is also immensely UPLIFTING, it TRANSPOSES one into the realms of metapolitics by FREEING one from political bondages founded upon violence and economic greed. This transposition is also PURIFYING self from all the elements within that urges on an individual with all kinds mundane desires, even of the religious kind that seek to enslave the mind of others.


[This message has been edited by webmaster (edited March 21, 2010).]

#809 - March 21, 2010 03:38 PM Re: Hindu Gems
webmaster Offline

Registered: February 07, 2010
Posts: 1030
Loc: KL
A Day in the Life of a Murti Maker


INDIA, September 13, 2009: A day in the life of an murti maker is marked by strict self-discipline, both physical and mental. “We bathe at dawn, get into fresh clothes and say a small prayer before embarking on murti making as often our work require us to stand/ stamp/ climb the murtis. We also try and abstain from all worldly addictions in this period,” says Biswajeet Pal, one of Vishwanath’s chief helpers.

Stretched over many months, the procedure of making murtis for Navaratri is an elaborate one. It involves creating a basic structure with straw or jute and applying wet clay onto this. Fleshing out the body comes next followed by paring and patting the limbs into shape. The entire body surface is then smoothed. A coat of flesh-colored paint is applied and the lips and nails painted a bright red. “The sacred texts describe the goddess as having ‘a complexion like unbeaten gold or morning sunshine and long eyes that stretch till the ears.’ We religiously follow these specifications,” says Vishwanath explaining the distinctive features of the mother goddess.

With budgets running into lakhs of rupees and organizers vying with each other for the awards announced by local sponsors, artisans have gone to extraordinary lengths to get noticed, but for Shashi Pal there are other things that are more important. “When a devotee looks up at the image, unless he is filled with a sense of awe and wonder about the tremendous power of the divine, I have failed as an artist,” he says.

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